Appendix IV: Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Greek)

Table 16.1: GREEK FIRST DECLENSION NOUNS
GK. NOUN TRANSLITERATION ENG. MEANING ENG. DERIVATIVE
γη (base gē-) earth geography
κεφαλε kephalē head cephalic
μορφη morphē form morphology
τεχνη technē art, skill technical
φωνη phōnē voice, sound phonograph
ψυχη psychē breath, spirit, soul psychology
γλωσσα glōssa tongue gloss, glossary
     (γλωττα)      (glōtta) (polyglot)
καρδια kardia heart cardiac
μουσα mousa muse music, musical
σφαιρα sphaira ball, globe spherical
Table 16.2: GREEK SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS IN -ος
GK. NOUN TRANSLITERATION ENG. MEANING ENG. DERIVATIVE
ἀνθρωπος anthrōpos man (= human) anthropology
βιος bios life biology
γαμος gamos marriage bigamy
δακτυλος daktylos finger dactyl
δημος dēmos people demography
θεος theos god monotheism
κυκλος kyklos wheel, circle cycle
λιθος lithos stone lithograph
νεκρος nekros
corpse necropolis
ξενος xenos
stranger xenophobia
οἰκος oikos
house ecology
ὀφθαλμος ophthalmos
eye ophthalmologist
τοπος topos
place topic
χρονος chronos time chronicle
Table 16.3: GREEK SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS IN –ον
GK. NOUN TRANSLITERATION ENG. MEANING ENG. DERIVATIVE
ζωον zōon animal zoology
θεατρον theatron viewing-place theatre
κεντρον kentron
sharp point, goad centre
μετρον metron measure metre, metric
νευρον neuron sinew, [nerve] neurology
ὀργανον organon
tool, instrument organ
ὀστεον osteon bone osteopath
πτερον pteron feather, wing pterodactyl
Table 18.1: GREEK THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS
GREEK NOUN TRANSLITERATION (BASE) ENG. MEANING DERIVATIVE
ἀηρ aēr air aerodynamic
πυρ pyr fire pyromania
ὑδωρ hydōr (hydr-) water hydraulic
δαιμων daimōn god, spirit demonic
χειρ cheir hand chiropractor
πους, ποδος pous, pod- foot podiatrist
γαστηρ, γαστρος gastēr, gastr- stomach gastronomy
ὀδους, ὀδοντος odous, odont- tooth orthodontic
ῥις, ῥινος rhis, rhin- nose rhinoceros
φως, φωτος phōs, phōt- light photograph
ἀνηρ, ἀνδρος anēr, andr- man polyandry
γυνη, γυναικος gynē, gynaik- woman gynecology
παις, παιδος pais, paid- child p(a)ediatric
γερων, γεροντος gerōn, geront- old man gerontology
πολις polis city acropolis
ἀλγος algos (alg-) pain neuralgia
βαρος baros (bar-) weight barometer
ἐθνος ethnos (ethn-) nation ethnic
ἠθος ēthos (ēth-) custom, character ethos
αἱμα, αἱματος haima, haimat- blood haemophilia
δερμα, δερματος derma, dermat- skin hypodermic
ὀνυμα, ὀνυματος onyma, onymat- name synonym
(ὀνομα, ὀνοματος) (onoma, onomat-) onomatopoeia
σωμα, σωματος sōma, sōmat- body psychosomatic
χρωμα, χρωματος chrōma, chrōmat- colour chromosome
Table 19.1: GREEK 1ST AND 2ND DECLENSION ADJECTIVES
ADJECTIVE TRANSLITERATION ENG. MEANING ENG. DERIVATIVE
ἀκρος akros top(most) acropolis
αὐτος autos self autograph
ἑτερος heteros other heterodox
ὁμος homos same homomorphic
ἰσος isos equal isometric
ὀρθος orthos straight, right orthodontic
νεος neos new neologism
παλαιος palaios old palaeography
Table 19.2: GREEK 3RD DECLENSION (AND OTHER) ADJECTIVES
ADJECTIVE TRANSLITERATION ENG. MEANING ENG. DERIVATIVE
μεγας megas (mega-) great, large megaphone
            (megal-) megalomania
μακρος makros long, (large) macrocephaly
μικρος mikros small microscope
πας pas (pan-, pant-) all
pantheon, pantomime
πολυς polys (poly-) (much), many polygamy
ψευδης pseudēs (pseud-) false pseudonym
Table 22.1: TRIAL SAMPLE OF GREEK VERBS
VERB ROOT ENGLISH MEANING PRESENT INFINITIVE
θε- the “place” τιθεναι (“to place”)
δο- do “give” διδοναι (“to give”)
στα- sta “stand” ἱσταναι (“to stand”)
κρι- kri “divide,” “judge” κρινειν (“to judge”)
λυ- ly “loosen,” “set free” λυειν (“to loosen”)
Table 22.2: OTHER GREEK VERBS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES
VERB ROOT (English meaning) ENGLISH DERIVATIVES
gen-,[1] genē-, gon- (be born) genesis, dysgenesis, genetic, gene, eugenics, gonad, gonorrhoea, cosmogony, theogony, oxygen, hydrogen, pathogen(ic), carcinogen(ic), parthenogenesis (< παρθενος, “virgin”)
path-, pathē- (suffer, feel) pathos, pathetic, sympathy, empathy, apathy, apathetic, antipathy, antipathetic(al), pathology, psychopath, etc.
pher-, phor-, (bear, carry) periphery, euphoria, dysphoria, semaphore, phosphorus, phosphorescence (form?)
leg-, log-, (speak; gather) -logy (-λογια, §110), dialect, dialectic, eclectic, dialogue (διαλογος > L dialogus), monologue, prologue, epilogue, apology, eulogy, anthology
graph-, gram- (write) -graph and -graphia (-γραφος, -γραφια, §110); gram, anagram, diagram, epigram, program(me), programmatic, telegram, grammatical, grammar
skop-, skep- (watch, examine) -scope and -scopia (-σκοπος, -σκοπια, §110); sceptic (skeptic), scepticism, episcopal, bishop < ἐπισκοπος (“overseer”)
trop- (turn) trope, tropic(al), tropism, heliotrope
stroph-, streph- (turn, twist) strophe, antistrophe, apostrophe, catastrophe, streptococcus
stol- (send) apostle, apostolic, epistle, diastole
kryp-, kryph- (hide) crypt (κρυπ-τος), cryptic (κρυπ-τικος), apocryphal cryptogram
phy- (grow) neophyte; G φυσις = L natura; physics, physical, metaphysical, physio-
aisthē- (feel, perceive) aesthete, (a)esthetic, anaesthetic, anaesthesia
agōg- (lead) synagogue, demagogue (δημ-αγωγος), pedagogue
ball-, bol-, blē- (throw) ballistics (via Latin), symbol, problem, emblem, hyperbole, hyperbola, parabola, parable, diabolic(al), anabolism, embolism, metabolism
pha-, phē- (speak) aphasia, dysphasia, euphemism, dysphemism, prophet (προφητης > L prophēta), prophetic, prophecy (προφητεια), prophesy, blaspheme
pha(i)n, pha- (show, appear) phase, emphasis, emphatic, phenomenon (pl. -a), epiphany, theophany, diaphanous, phantasy (fantasy and fantastic show Latinized spelling)
hora-, op(t)– (see) optic (ὀπ-τικος), synopsis, synoptic, autopsy, biopsy, optometrist, optician (hybrid), panorama, cyclorama, diorama
rheu-, rho-, rheo- (flow) rheum, rheumatic, rheumatoid, rheostat, catarrh, diarrhoea (diarrhea), gonorrhoea
tak- (arrange) syntax (συνταξις < *sun-tak-sis), tactic(al), tactician, taxidermy

  1. cf. Latin gen-, as in genusgenerisprogeny and progenitor are Latin derivatives.

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Appendix IV: Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Greek) by Peter Smith (Estate) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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