Appendix D Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

In this glossary, key symbols and notation are briefly defined.

Symbol Definition
[latex]\overline{\text{any symbol}}[/latex] average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., [latex]\bar{v}[/latex] is average velocity)
[latex]^{\circ} \text{C}[/latex] Celsius degree
[latex]^{\circ} \text{F}[/latex] Fahrenheit degree
[latex]//[/latex] parallel
[latex]\bot[/latex] perpendicular
[latex]\propto[/latex] proportional to
[latex]\pm[/latex] plus or minus
[latex]_0[/latex] zero as a subscript denotes an initial value
[latex]\alpha[/latex] alpha rays
[latex]\alpha[/latex] angular acceleration
[latex]\alpha[/latex] temperature coefficient(s) of resistivity
[latex]\beta[/latex] beta rays
[latex]\beta[/latex] sound level
[latex]\beta[/latex] volume coefficient of expansion
[latex]\beta ^{-}[/latex] electron emitted in nuclear beta decay
[latex]\beta ^{+}[/latex] positron decay
[latex]\gamma[/latex] gamma rays
[latex]\gamma[/latex] surface tension
[latex]\gamma = 1/ \sqrt{1 - v^2 / c^2}[/latex] a constant used in relativity
[latex]\Delta[/latex] change in whatever quantity follows
[latex]\delta[/latex] uncertainty in whatever quantity follows
[latex]\mathit\Delta E[/latex] change in energy between the initial and final orbits of an electron in an atom
[latex]\mathit\Delta E[/latex] uncertainty in energy
[latex]\mathit\Delta m[/latex] difference in mass between initial and final products
[latex]\mathit\Delta N[/latex] number of decays that occur
[latex]\mathit\Delta p[/latex] change in momentum
[latex]\mathit\Delta p[/latex] uncertainty in momentum
[latex]\mathit\Delta \text{PE}_{\text{g}}[/latex] change in gravitational potential energy
[latex]\mathit\Delta \theta[/latex] rotation angle
[latex]\mathit\Delta s[/latex] distance traveled along a circular path
[latex]\mathit\Delta t[/latex] uncertainty in time
[latex]\mathit\Delta t_0[/latex] proper time as measured by an observer at rest relative to the process
[latex]\mathit\Delta V[/latex] potential difference
[latex]\mathit\Delta x[/latex] uncertainty in position
[latex]\epsilon _0[/latex] permittivity of free space
[latex]\eta[/latex] viscosity
[latex]\theta[/latex] angle between the force vector and the displacement vector
[latex]\theta[/latex] angle between two lines
[latex]\theta[/latex] contact angle
[latex]\theta[/latex] direction of the resultant
[latex]\theta _b[/latex] Brewster’s angle
[latex]\theta _c[/latex] critical angle
[latex]\kappa[/latex] dielectric constant
[latex]\lambda[/latex] decay constant of a nuclide
[latex]\lambda[/latex] wavelength
[latex]\lambda _n[/latex] wavelength in a medium
[latex]\mu _0[/latex] permeability of free space
[latex]\mu _k[/latex] coefficient of kinetic friction
[latex]\mu _s[/latex] coefficient of static friction
[latex]v_e[/latex] electron neutrino
[latex]\pi ^+[/latex] positive pion
[latex]\pi ^-[/latex] negative pion
[latex]\pi ^0[/latex] neutral pion
[latex]\rho[/latex] density
[latex]\rho _{\text{c}}[/latex] critical density, the density needed to just halt universal expansion
[latex]\rho _{\text{fl}}[/latex] fluid density
[latex]\overline{\rho} _{\text{obj}}[/latex] average density of an object
[latex]\rho / \rho _{\text{w}}[/latex] specific gravity
[latex]\tau[/latex] characteristic time constant for a resistance and inductance ([latex]RL[/latex]) or resistance and capacitance ([latex]RC[/latex]) circuit
[latex]\tau[/latex] characteristic time for a resistor and capacitor ([latex]RC[/latex]) circuit
[latex]\tau[/latex] torque
[latex]\Upsilon[/latex] upsilon meson
[latex]\Phi[/latex] magnetic flux
[latex]\phi[/latex] phase angle
[latex]\Omega[/latex] ohm (unit)
[latex]\omega[/latex] angular velocity
[latex]\text{A}[/latex] ampere (current unit)
[latex]A[/latex] area
[latex]A[/latex] cross-sectional area
[latex]A[/latex] total number of nucleons
[latex]a[/latex] acceleration
[latex]a_{\text{B}}[/latex] Bohr radius
[latex]a_{\text{c}}[/latex] centripetal acceleration
[latex]a_{\text{t}}[/latex] tangential acceleration
[latex]\text{AC}[/latex] alternating current
[latex]\text{AM}[/latex] amplitude modulation
[latex]\text{atm}[/latex] atmosphere
[latex]B[/latex] baryon number
[latex]B[/latex] blue quark color
[latex]\overline{B}[/latex] antiblue (yellow) antiquark color
[latex]b[/latex] quark flavor bottom or beauty
[latex]B[/latex] bulk modulus
[latex]B[/latex] magnetic field strength
[latex]B_{\text{int}}[/latex] electron’s intrinsic magnetic field
[latex]B_{\text{orb}}[/latex] orbital magnetic field
[latex]\text{BE}[/latex] binding energy of a nucleus—it is the energy required to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons
[latex]\text{BE/A}[/latex] binding energy per nucleon
[latex]\text{Bq}[/latex] becquerel—one decay per second
[latex]C[/latex] capacitance (amount of charge stored per volt)
[latex]C[/latex] coulomb (a fundamental SI unit of charge)
[latex]C_{\text{p}}[/latex] total capacitance in parallel
[latex]C_{\text{s}}[/latex] total capacitance in series
[latex]\text{CG}[/latex] center of gravity
[latex]\text{CM}[/latex] center of mass
[latex]c[/latex] quark flavor charm
[latex]c[/latex] specific heat
[latex]c[/latex] speed of light
[latex]\text{Cal}[/latex] kilocalorie
[latex]\text{cal}[/latex] calorie
[latex]\textit{\text{COP}}_{\text{hp}}[/latex] heat pump’s coefficient of performance
[latex]\textit{\text{COP}}_{\text{ref}}[/latex] coefficient of performance for refrigerators and air conditioners
[latex]\text{cos} \theta[/latex] cosine
[latex]\text{cot} \theta[/latex] cotangent
[latex]\text{csc} \theta[/latex] cosecant
[latex]D[/latex] diffusion constant
[latex]d[/latex] displacement
[latex]d[/latex] quark flavor down
[latex]\text{dB}[/latex] decibel
[latex]d_i[/latex] distance of an image from the center of a lens
[latex]d_o[/latex] distance of an object from the center of a lens
[latex]\text{DC}[/latex] direct current
[latex]E[/latex] electric field strength
[latex]\epsilon[/latex] emf (voltage) or Hall electromotive force
[latex]\text{emf}[/latex] electromotive force
[latex]E[/latex] energy of a single photon
[latex]E[/latex] nuclear reaction energy
[latex]E[/latex] relativistic total energy
[latex]E[/latex] total energy
[latex]E_0[/latex] ground state energy for hydrogen
[latex]E_0[/latex] rest energy
[latex]\text{EC}[/latex] electron capture
[latex]E_{\text{cap}}[/latex] energy stored in a capacitor
[latex]\textit{\text{Eff}}[/latex] efficiency—the useful work output divided by the energy input
[latex]\textit{\text{Eff}}_{\textit{\text{C}}}[/latex] Carnot efficiency
[latex]E_{\text{in}}[/latex] energy consumed (food digested in humans)
[latex]E_{\text{ind}}[/latex] energy stored in an inductor
[latex]E_{\text{out}}[/latex] energy output
[latex]e[/latex] emissivity of an object
[latex]e^+[/latex] antielectron or positron
[latex]\text{eV}[/latex] electron volt
[latex]\text{F}[/latex] farad (unit of capacitance, a coulomb per volt)
[latex]\text{F}[/latex] focal point of a lens
[latex]\textbf{\text{F}}[/latex] force
[latex]F[/latex] magnitude of a force
[latex]F[/latex] restoring force
[latex]F_{\text{B}}[/latex] buoyant force
[latex]F_{\text{c}}[/latex] centripetal force
[latex]F_{\text{i}}[/latex] force input
[latex]\textbf{F}_{\text{net}}[/latex] net force
[latex]F_{\text{o}}[/latex] force output
[latex]\text{FM}[/latex] frequency modulation
[latex]f[/latex] focal length
[latex]f[/latex] frequency
[latex]f_0[/latex] resonant frequency of a resistance, inductance, and capacitance ([latex]RLC[/latex]) series circuit
[latex]f_0[/latex] threshold frequency for a particular material (photoelectric effect)
[latex]f_1[/latex] fundamental
[latex]f_2[/latex] first overtone
[latex]f_3[/latex] second overtone
[latex]f_{\text{B}}[/latex] beat frequency
[latex]f_{\text{k}}[/latex] magnitude of kinetic friction
[latex]f_{\text{s}}[/latex] magnitude of static friction
[latex]G[/latex] gravitational constant
[latex]G[/latex] green quark color
[latex]\overline{G}[/latex] antigreen (magenta) antiquark color
[latex]g[/latex] acceleration due to gravity
[latex]g[/latex] gluons (carrier particles for strong nuclear force)
[latex]h[/latex] change in vertical position
[latex]h[/latex] height above some reference point
[latex]h[/latex] maximum height of a projectile
[latex]h[/latex] Planck’s constant
[latex]hf[/latex] photon energy
[latex]h_i[/latex] height of the image
[latex]h_o[/latex] height of the object
[latex]I[/latex] electric current
[latex]I[/latex] intensity
[latex]I[/latex] intensity of a transmitted wave
[latex]I[/latex] moment of inertia (also called rotational inertia)
[latex]I_0[/latex] intensity of a polarized wave before passing through a filter
[latex]I_{\text{ave}}[/latex] average intensity for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave
[latex]I_{\text{rms}}[/latex] average current
[latex]J[/latex] joule
[latex]J / \psi[/latex] Joules/psi meson
[latex]\text{K}[/latex] kelvin
[latex]k[/latex] Boltzmann constant
[latex]k[/latex] force constant of a spring
[latex]K_{\alpha}[/latex] x rays created when an electron falls into an [latex]n = 1[/latex] shell vacancy from the [latex]n = 3[/latex] shell
[latex]K_{\beta}[/latex] x rays created when an electron falls into an [latex]n = 2[/latex] shell vacancy from the [latex]n = 3[/latex] shell
[latex]\text{kcal}[/latex] kilocalorie
[latex]\text{KE}[/latex] translational kinetic energy
[latex]\text{KE} + \text{PE}[/latex] mechanical energy
[latex]\text{KE}_e[/latex] kinetic energy of an ejected electron
[latex]\text{KE}_{\text{rel}}[/latex] relativistic kinetic energy
[latex]\text{KE}_{\text{rot}}[/latex] rotational kinetic energy
[latex]\overline{\text{KE}}[/latex] thermal energy
[latex]\text{kg}[/latex] kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
[latex]L[/latex] angular momentum
[latex]\text{L}[/latex] liter
[latex]L[/latex] magnitude of angular momentum
[latex]L[/latex] self-inductance
[latex]\ell[/latex] angular momentum quantum number
[latex]L_{\alpha}[/latex] x rays created when an electron falls into an [latex]n = 2[/latex] shell from the [latex]n = 3[/latex] shell
[latex]L_e[/latex] electron total family number
[latex]L_{\mu}[/latex] muon family total number
[latex]L_{\tau}[/latex] tau family total number
[latex]L_{\text{f}}[/latex] heat of fusion
[latex]L_{\text{f}}[/latex] and [latex]L_{\text{v}}[/latex] latent heat coefficients
[latex]L_{\text{orb}}[/latex] orbital angular momentum
[latex]L_{\text{s}}[/latex] heat of sublimation
[latex]L_{\text{v}}[/latex] heat of vaporization
[latex]L_z[/latex] z – component of the angular momentum
[latex]M[/latex] angular magnification
[latex]M[/latex] mutual inductance
[latex]\text{m}[/latex] indicates metastable state
[latex]m[/latex] magnification
[latex]m[/latex] mass
[latex]m[/latex] mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
[latex]\text{m}[/latex] meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
[latex]m[/latex] order of interference
[latex]m[/latex] overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
[latex]m(^AX)[/latex] atomic mass of a nuclide
[latex]\text{MA}[/latex] mechanical advantage
[latex]m_{\text{e}}[/latex] magnification of the eyepiece
[latex]m_e[/latex] mass of the electron
[latex]m_{\ell}[/latex] angular momentum projection quantum number
[latex]m_n[/latex] mass of a neutron
[latex]m_{\text{o}}[/latex] magnification of the objective lens
[latex]\text{mol}[/latex] mole
[latex]m_p[/latex] mass of a proton
[latex]m_{\text{s}}[/latex] spin projection quantum number
[latex]N[/latex] magnitude of the normal force
[latex]\text{N}[/latex] newton
[latex]\textbf{\text{N}}[/latex] normal force
[latex]N[/latex] number of neutrons
[latex]n[/latex] index of refraction
[latex]n[/latex] number of free charges per unit volume
[latex]N_A[/latex] Avogadro’s number
[latex]N_{\text{r}}[/latex] Reynolds number
[latex]\text{N} \cdot \text{m}[/latex] newton-meter (work-energy unit)
[latex]\text{N} \cdot \text{m}[/latex] newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
[latex]\text{OE}[/latex] other energy
[latex]P[/latex] power
[latex]P[/latex] power of a lens
[latex]P[/latex] pressure
[latex]\textbf{\text{p}}[/latex] momentum
[latex]p[/latex] momentum magnitude
[latex]p[/latex] relativistic momentum
[latex]\textbf{\text{p}}_{\text{tot}}[/latex] total momentum
[latex]\textbf{\text{p}}^{\prime}_{\text{tot}}[/latex] total momentum some time later
[latex]p_{\text{abs}}[/latex] absolute pressure
[latex]p_{\text{atm}}[/latex] atmospheric pressure
[latex]p_{\text{atm}}[/latex] standard atmospheric pressure
[latex]\text{PE}[/latex] potential energy
[latex]\text{PE}_{el}[/latex] elastic potential energy
[latex]\text{PE}_{\text{elec}}[/latex] electric potential energy
[latex]\text{PE}_s[/latex] potential energy of a spring
[latex]P_g[/latex] gauge pressure
[latex]P_{in}[/latex] power consumption or input
[latex]P_{out}[/latex] useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
[latex]Q[/latex] latent heat
[latex]Q[/latex] net heat transferred into a system
[latex]Q[/latex] flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
[latex]+Q[/latex] positive charge
[latex]-Q[/latex] negative charge
[latex]q[/latex] electron charge
[latex]q_p[/latex] charge of a proton
[latex]q[/latex] test charge
[latex]\text{QF}[/latex] quality factor
[latex]R[/latex] activity, the rate of decay
[latex]R[/latex] radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
[latex]R[/latex] red quark color
[latex]\overline{R}[/latex] antired (cyan) quark color
[latex]R[/latex] resistance
[latex]\text{R}[/latex] resultant or total displacement
[latex]R[/latex] Rydberg constant
[latex]R[/latex] universal gas constant
[latex]r[/latex] distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
[latex]r[/latex] internal resistance
[latex]r_{\bot}[/latex] perpendicular lever arm
[latex]r[/latex] radius of a nucleus
[latex]r[/latex] radius of curvature
[latex]r[/latex] resistivity
[latex]\text{r or rad}[/latex] radiation dose unit
[latex]\text{rem}[/latex] roentgen equivalent man
[latex]\text{rad}[/latex] radian
[latex]\text{RBE}[/latex] relative biological effectiveness
[latex]RC[/latex] resistor and capacitor circuit
[latex]\text{rms}[/latex] root mean square
[latex]r_n[/latex] radius of the nth H-atom orbit
[latex]R_p[/latex] total resistance of a parallel connection
[latex]R_s[/latex] total resistance of a series connection
[latex]R_s[/latex] Schwarzschild radius
[latex]S[/latex] entropy
[latex]\textbf{\text{S}}[/latex] intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
[latex]S[/latex] magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
[latex]S[/latex] shear modulus
[latex]S[/latex] strangeness quantum number
[latex]s[/latex] quark flavor strange
[latex]\text{s}[/latex] second (fundamental SI unit of time)
[latex]s[/latex] spin quantum number
[latex]\textbf{\text{s}}[/latex] total displacement
[latex]\text{sec} \theta[/latex] secant
[latex]\text{sin} \theta[/latex] sine
[latex]s_z[/latex] z-component of spin angular momentum
[latex]T[/latex] period—time to complete one oscillation
[latex]T[/latex] temperature
[latex]T_c[/latex] critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
[latex]T[/latex] tension
[latex]\text{T}[/latex] tesla (magnetic field strength B)
[latex]t[/latex] quark flavor top or truth
[latex]t[/latex] time
[latex]t_{1/2}[/latex] half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
[latex]\text{tan} \theta[/latex] tangent
[latex]U[/latex] internal energy
[latex]u[/latex] quark flavor up
[latex]\text{u}[/latex] unified atomic mass unit
[latex]\textbf{\text{u}}[/latex] velocity of an object relative to an observer
[latex]\textbf{\text{u}}^{\prime}[/latex] velocity relative to another observer
[latex]V[/latex] electric potential
[latex]V[/latex] terminal voltage
[latex]\text{V}[/latex] volt (unit)
[latex]V[/latex] volume
[latex]\textbf{\text{v}}[/latex] relative velocity between two observers
[latex]v[/latex] speed of light in a material
[latex]\textbf{\text{v}}[/latex] velocity
[latex]\overline{\textbf{\text{v}}}[/latex] average fluid velocity
[latex]V_B - V_A[/latex] change in potential
[latex]\textbf{\text{v}}_d[/latex] drift velocity
[latex]V_p[/latex] transformer input voltage
[latex]V_{\text{rms}}[/latex] rms voltage
[latex]V_s[/latex] transformer output voltage
[latex]\textbf{\text{v}}_{\text{tot}}[/latex] total velocity
[latex]v_{\text{w}}[/latex] propagation speed of sound or other wave
[latex]\textbf{\text{v}}_{\text{w}}[/latex] wave velocity
[latex]W[/latex] work
[latex]W[/latex] net work done by a system
[latex]\text{W}[/latex] watt
[latex]w[/latex] weight
[latex]w_{\text{fl}}[/latex] weight of the fluid displaced by an object
[latex]W_c[/latex] total work done by all conservative forces
[latex]W_{nc}[/latex] total work done by all nonconservative forces
[latex]W_{out}[/latex] useful work output
[latex]X[/latex] amplitude
[latex]\text{X}[/latex] symbol for an element
[latex]\begin{matrix} Z \\ A \end{matrix} K_N[/latex] notation for a particular nuclide
[latex]x[/latex] deformation or displacement from equilibrium
[latex]x[/latex] displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
[latex]x[/latex] horizontal axis
[latex]X_C[/latex] capacitive reactance
[latex]X_L[/latex] inductive reactance
[latex]x_{\text{rms}}[/latex] root mean square diffusion distance
[latex]y[/latex] vertical axis
[latex]Y[/latex] elastic modulus or Young’s modulus
[latex]Z[/latex] atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
[latex]Z[/latex] impedance