Rational Expressions and Functions
Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
Learning Objectives
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
 Simplify a complex rational expression by writing it as division
 Simplify a complex rational expression by using the LCD
Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.
Simplify a Complex Rational Expression by Writing it as Division
Complex fractions are fractions in which the numerator or denominator contains a fraction. We previously simplified complex fractions like these:
In this section, we will simplify complex rational expressions, which are rational expressions with rational expressions in the numerator or denominator.
A complex rational expression is a rational expression in which the numerator and/or the denominator contains a rational expression.
Here are a few complex rational expressions:
Remember, we always exclude values that would make any denominator zero.
We will use two methods to simplify complex rational expressions.
We have already seen this complex rational expression earlier in this chapter.
We noted that fraction bars tell us to divide, so rewrote it as the division problem:
Then, we multiplied the first rational expression by the reciprocal of the second, just like we do when we divide two fractions.
This is one method to simplify complex rational expressions. We make sure the complex rational expression is of the form where one fraction is over one fraction. We then write it as if we were dividing two fractions.
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Are there any value(s) of x that should not be allowed? The original complex rational expression had denominators of and This expression would be undefined if or
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Fraction bars act as grouping symbols. So to follow the Order of Operations, we simplify the numerator and denominator as much as possible before we can do the division.
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the numerator and denominator.
Find the LCD and add the fractions in the numerator. Find the LCD and subtract the fractions in the denominator. 

Simplify the numerator and denominator.  
Rewrite the complex rational expression as a division
problem. 

Multiply the first by the reciprocal of the second.  
Simplify.  3 
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
We follow the same procedure when the complex rational expression contains variables.
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division: .
We summarize the steps here.
 Simplify the numerator and denominator.
 Rewrite the complex rational expression as a division problem.
 Divide the expressions.
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the numerator and denominator.
Find common denominators for the numerator and denominator. 

Simplify the numerators.  
Subtract the rational expressions in the numerator and
add in the denominator. 

Simplify. (We now have one rational expression over
one rational expression.) 

Rewrite as fraction division.  
Multiply the first times the reciprocal of the second.  
Factor any expressions if possible.  
Remove common factors.  
Simplify. 
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify the complex rational expression by writing it as division:
Simplify a Complex Rational Expression by Using the LCD
We “cleared” the fractions by multiplying by the LCD when we solved equations with fractions. We can use that strategy here to simplify complex rational expressions. We will multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the rational expressions.
Let’s look at the complex rational expression we simplified one way in (Figure). We will simplify it here by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD. When we multiply by we are multiplying by 1, so the value stays the same.
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
The LCD of all the fractions in the whole expression is 6.  
Clear the fractions by multiplying the numerator and
denominator by that LCD. 

Distribute.  
Simplify.  
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
We will use the same example as in (Figure). Decide which method works better for you.
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
 Find the LCD of all fractions in the complex rational expression.
 Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD.
 Simplify the expression.
Be sure to start by factoring all the denominators so you can find the LCD.
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Find the LCD of all fractions in the complex rational
expression. The LCD is . 

Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD.  
Simplify the expression.  
Distribute in the denominator.  
Simplify.  
Simplify.  
To simplify the denominator, distribute
and combine like terms. 

Factor the denominator.  
Remove common factors.  
Simplify.  
Notice that there are no more factors
common to the numerator and denominator. 
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Be sure to factor the denominators first. Proceed carefully as the math can get messy!
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Find the LCD of all fractions in the
complex rational expression. 

The LCD is  
Multiply the numerator and
denominator by the LCD. 

Simplify.  
Simplify.  
Distribute.  
Combine like terms. 
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Find the LCD of all fractions in the complex rational expression.  
The LCD is  
Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD.  
Distribute in the denominator and simplify.  
Simplify.  
Simplify the denominator and leave the
numerator factored. 

Factor the denominator and remove factors
common with the numerator. 

Simplify. 
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Simplify the complex rational expression by using the LCD:
Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with complex fractions.
Key Concepts
 How to simplify a complex rational expression by writing it as division.
 Simplify the numerator and denominator.
 Rewrite the complex rational expression as a division problem.
 Divide the expressions.
 How to simplify a complex rational expression by using the LCD.
 Find the LCD of all fractions in the complex rational expression.
 Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD.
 Simplify the expression.
Practice Makes Perfect
Simplify a Complex Rational Expression by Writing it as Division
In the following exercises, simplify each complex rational expression by writing it as division.
Simplify a Complex Rational Expression by Using the LCD
In the following exercises, simplify each complex rational expression by using the LCD.
In the following exercises, simplify each complex rational expression using either method.
Writing Exercises
In this section, you learned to simplify the complex fraction two ways: rewriting it as a division problem or multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD. Which method do you prefer? Why?
Answers will vary.
Efraim wants to start simplifying the complex fraction by cancelling the variables from the numerator and denominator, Explain what is wrong with Efraim’s plan.
Self Check
ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.
ⓑ After looking at the checklist, do you think you are wellprepared for the next section? Why or why not?
Glossary
 complex rational expression
 A complex rational expression is a rational expression in which the numerator and/or denominator contains a rational expression.