Main Body


Section Highlights

  • Keller’s model was revised in 2007 and 2008 to add volition and cognitive-emotional components

Evolution of the ARC Model

The original ARCS model had 4 components: Attention which focussed on arousing curiosity and inquiry. Relevance which helps learners link new information to what they already know and what they need to know in the future. Confidence, the beginning recognition of the role of emotion and belief in motivation and learning, and Satisfaction as one of the outcomes that continues to refuel and sustain motivation.

Although the original ARCS model remains heavily cited, in reality, Keller has maintained involvement in the development of the model as it has moved through later versions called ARCS-V  (2007) and MVP (2008). Each of the versions of the model has stayed true to the belief that motivation is a complex and dynamic phenomenon which includes facets such as meta-cognition, desire, and, persistence. This progression is depicted in a  short video in the next section.

The MVP model was formed to include processing and cognitive and emotional components that show a relationship between motivation, learning, and performance (Keller 2017). Recognizing that even when motivation is high, stress and emotion can inhibit learning and therefore performance.

Volition is the action and attitudes that contribute to the persistence that helps learners reach the goal.   Volition aligns to other learning constructs such as mindset, resilience, and grit. Research on grit has been positively correlated with a higher purpose of learning (Angelo, 2017). Mindset is related to a students belief about their own intelligence and capacity to learn, this correlates to the confidence component of the ARC model.

Links and Resource


Self-assessing mindset


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ARCS Motivation and Distance Learning Copyright © by Leeann Waddington and Debra Dell is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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