Map with ancient Aegean cultures (© Google)
The Aegean refers to the Aegean Sea, the northern portion of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey and extending south to the island of Crete. In art history this designation refers to the era of the Bronze Age, the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C.E. This era encompasses three different but inter-related cultures:
- the Cycladic islands (c. 3000 BCE-1600 BCE)
- the Minoans of Crete (c. 1900 BCE-1375 BCE)
- the Mycenaeans of the mainland of Greece (c. 1600 BCE-1100 BCE)
- Identify and describe the form, content, and context of key works of Aegean art
- Define the critical terms related to Aegean art
- Explain the similarities and differences of art by the three Bronze Age Aegean cultures
- Describe the materials and techniques of Aegean Art
Relative to many ancient cultures, those of the Aegean were only recently discovered, at the end of the 19th century. The Classical Greeks and Romans never faded from memory but the Mycenaeans and Minoans were largely forgotten, except in myth; it is the people and places of Bronze Age Crete and Greece featured in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer.
Two archaeologists who set out to find the people mentioned in Homer’s epics, Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans, had little more than the poems themselves and some obscure remains to lead them. Schliemann dug several Aegean Bronze Age sites, most famously Troy from 1870–73, and Mycenae (the mythical house of Atreus, best known from the tragic play the Oresteia of Aeschylus) in 1876. In 1900, Evans, following the first explorations of the site by Minos Kalokairinos in 1877, began to fully uncover Knossos, the site associated with the mythical palace of King Nestor of Crete.
Grave Circle A: Mycenae, Greece, c. 1600-1100 B.C.E.
Since these early discoveries, the study of the Aegean has been primarily archaeological and not so much art historical. We now know that the Minoans and Mycenaeans both wrote languages, used sophisticated identity and security mechanisms as part of religious and economic bureaucracies which centered around large sites with imposing central buildings. They were great seafarers and traders, talented potters, painters, jewelers, weavers and carvers of stone.
Reconstructed Minoan Fresco from Avaris, Egypt: Archaeological Museum Iraklion, Crete, Greece.
The prehistoric Aegean was the first truly international age, and much of the art shows influence across cultures: Minoan wall painting owes much to Egyptian art; late Bronze Age Cypriot pottery imitates Mycenaean pieces. Today, the sites and art of the Minoans and Mycenaeans are some of the most popular in the ancient world.
- Aegean art includes three different but inter-related cultures: Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean.
- Much of our understanding of Aegean art has been shaped by the work of nineteenth-century archeologists like Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans.
Adapted from Dr. Senta German, “An introduction to the ancient Aegean,” in Smarthistory, August 25, 2020. https://smarthistory.org/an-introduction-to-the-ancient-aegean/ License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License