Welcome to the Douglas College Anatomy & Physiology open textbook!

This textbook is a project under development by our Biology faculty to ultimately provide students with all the factual information they need to succeed in the BIOL 1203 and BIOL 1209 courses at Douglas College in BC, Canada.  Readers should be aware that the information herein is subject to change at any time as corrections, additions, or other important modifications are made.  Only the most recent version will be considered to be complete and correct.  The most recent version is accessible online at, and the most recent version of the companion textbook (developed for Douglas College’s BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1109 courses) is also accessible online at

The material herein is drawn largely from the OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology textbook, also freely and perpetually available online at  Chapter and section numbers have been left as they were in the version of the OpenStax A&P textbook from which they are drawn; some sections have been removed, and others have had some material added, to correspond with the curriculum used at Douglas College.


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Douglas College Human Anatomy and Physiology II (1st ed.) Copyright © 1999-2016 by Rice University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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