# Appendix C Useful Information: Important constants, Metric Prefixes, SI Units, Useful Formulae, etc.

This appendix is broken into several tables.

- Table 3, Important Constants
- Table 4, Submicroscopic Masses
- Table 5, Solar System Data
- Table 6, Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols
- Table 7, The Greek Alphabet
- Table 8, SI units
- Table 9, Selected British Units
- Table 10, Other Units
- Table 11, Useful Formulae

**Table 3.** Important Constants^{1}

Symbol | Meaning | Best Value | Approximate Value |
---|---|---|---|

Speed of light in vacuum | |||

Gravitational constant | |||

Avogadro’s number | |||

Boltzmann’s constant | |||

Gas constant | |||

Stefan-Boltzmann constant | |||

Coulomb force constant | |||

Charge on electron | |||

Permittivity of free space | |||

Permeability of free space | |||

Planck’s constant |

Symbol | Meaning | Best Value | Approximate Value |
---|---|---|---|

Electron mass | |||

Proton mass | |||

Neutron mass | |||

Atomic mass unit | |||

Table 4. Submicroscopic Masses^{2} |

Sun |
mass | |

average radius | ||

Earth-sun distance (average) | ||

Earth |
mass | |

average radius | ||

orbital period | ||

Moon |
mass | |

average radius | ||

orbital period (average) | ||

Earth-moon distance (average) | ||

Table 5. Solar System Data |

Prefix | Symbol | Value | Prefix | Symbol | Value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

tera | T | deci | d | ||

giga | G | centi | c | ||

mega | M | milli | m | ||

kilo | k | micro | |||

hecto | h | nano | n | ||

deka | da | pico | p | ||

— | — | femto | f | ||

Table 6. Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols |

Alpha | A | Eta | Η | Nu | Ν | Tau | Τ | ||||

Beta | Β | Theta | Θ | Xi | Ξ | Upsilon | Υ | ||||

Gamma | Γ | Iota | Ι | Omicron | Ο | Phi | Φ | ||||

Delta | Δ | Kappa | Κ | Pi | Π | Chi | Χ | ||||

Epsilon | Ε | Lambda | Λ | Rho | Ρ | Psi | Ψ | ||||

Zeta | Ζ | Mu | Μ | Sigma | Σ | Omega | Ω | ||||

Table 7. The Greek Alphabet |

Entity | Abbreviation | Name | |
---|---|---|---|

Fundamental units |
Length | meter | |

Mass | kilogram | ||

Time | second | ||

Current | ampere | ||

Supplementary unit |
Angle | radian | |

Derived units |
Force | newton | |

Energy | joule | ||

Power | watt | ||

Pressure | pascal | ||

Frequency | hertz | ||

Electronic potential | volt | ||

Capacitance | farad | ||

Charge | coulomb | ||

Resistance | ohm | ||

Magnetic field | tesla | ||

Nuclear decay rate | becquerel | ||

Table 8. SI Units |

Length | |

Force | |

Energy | |

Power | |

Pressure | |

Table 9. Selected British Units |

Length | |

Area | |

Volume | |

Mass | |

Time | |

Speed | |

Angle | |

‘ | |

Energy | |

Pressure | |

Nuclear decay rate | |

Table 9. Other Units |

Table 10. Useful Formulae |

## Footnotes

- 1 Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
- 2 Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.