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List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Delphi Panel consensus on Canadian science priorities.
Figure 2.2 Three dimensions of science education with the sustainability sciences as the foundation.
Figure 6.1 Nisga’a fish wheel showing holding pen.
Figure 7.1 Full size northern style Tluu dugout canoe with high, rectangular shaped prow and stern.
Figure 7.2 Nuu-chah-nulth whaling canoe.
Figure 7.3 Coast Salish canoe for general travel and transport of goods.
Figure 7.4 Poling a canoe up-river.
Figure 7.5 Birch bark canoe.
Figure 7.6 Sturgeon-nosed canoe.
Figure 7.7 Skidegate village.
Figure 7.8 The framework of a large house with fluted beams in the
Kwakiutl village of Mamalilikulla on Village Island, near Yalis (Alert Bay)
Figure 7.9 The framework of a large house with fluted beams in the
Kwakiutl village of Mamalilikulla on Village Island, near Yalis (Alert Bay)
Figure 7.10 Raising a massive house beam along a skid using levers, wedges,
fulcrum, ropes, and manpower.
Figure 7.11 Crib to lift house beam.
Figure 7.12 Stripping the bark from only one side of the red cedar tree.
Figure 7.13 Berry picking basket, woven with cedar root and cedar splints.
Figure 7.14 Baby cradle.
Figure 7.15 Birch bark basket.
Figure 7.16 Lil’wat snowshoes for a child.
Figure 7.17 Garry Oak Meadow with Blue Camas plant.
Figure 7.18 Blue Camas roots and bulbs.
Figure 7.19 Tracey Island clam garden showing raised wall.
Figure 7.20 Families depicted in clam garden.
Figure 7.21 The water boils when hot cooking rocks are place in the
cedar bentwood box to steam the clams.
Figure 7.22 Cooking butter clams in a cedar bentwood box in Deep Harbour.
Figure 7.23 Clan Chief Kwaxsistella (Adam Dick) digging clams with the
kil’luckw (yew wood digging stick) that he made.
Figure 7.24 Curious codfish following twirling lure to waiting fishermen at the surface.
Figure 7.25 Traditional gillnet.
Figure 7.26 Reef net of the WSÁNEĆ (Saanich) Saltwater people.
Figure 7.27 Herring spawn culture.
Figure 7.28 Northern Rice Root Lily.
Figure 7.29 Springbank Clover.
Figure 7.30 Pacific Silverweed.
Figure 7.31 Northern Rice roots and seed pod.
Figure 7.32 Pacific Silverweed roots.
Figure 7.33 Springbank Clover roots.
Figure 7.34 Idealized salt marsh cross-section.
Figure 8.1 Memorial pole by master carver Hilamas (Willie Seaweed) portraying
Thunderbird and Wild Woman of the Woods.
Figure 8.2 School students march in full regalia at Salmon Festival.
Figure 9.1 Drawing by Grade 5/6 male student.
Figure 9.2 Drawing by Grade 11/12 female student.
Figure 9.3 Drawing by Grade 5/6 female student.
Figure 9.4 Drawing by Grade 5/6 female student.
Figure 9.5 Drawing by Grade 6/7 student.
Figure 9.6 Drawing by Grade 5/6 female student.
Figure 10.1 Seasonal wheel chart.
Figure 11.1 Dentalium pretiosum, a long mollusk of the class Scaphopoda.
Figure 11.2 Cross section of dentalia burrowing into sandy bottom sediments.
Figure 11.3 Members of an Ehattesaht village barter strings of dentalia for iron chisels.
Figure 11.4 Map depicting extent of dentalium trade.
Figure 11.5 Oglala Sioux woman photographed in 1908 wearing a dress adorned with dentalium shells.
Figure 11.6 Braided hair adorned with dentalium shells.
Figure 11.7 Dentalium shells dangle from the braids and form a necklace for a Sioux doll.
Figure 11.8 Beaded Tlingit headdress.
Figure 11.9 Dentalium “broom” lowered to the shell beds by adding extensions to the handle.
Figure 11.10 Phil Nuytten’s dentalia-harvesting broom outfitted with a weighted board.
Figure 11.11 In the Sea Urchin, an eight-foot mini-submarine,
Nuytten scans the sandy sea bottom for dentalia.
Figure 11.12 Nuytten is lowered overboard from a winch to land on the sea bottom,
where he observed the dentalium broom at work.
Figure 11.13 Drawing by student of a dentalium-harvesting implement or technique.
Figure 13.1 Barbeque dzaxwan and salmon.
Figure 13.2 Wayut’an – half smoked dazxwan after being smoked for 2 to 3 days.
Figure 13.3 Stages of an oolichan’s life from juvenile to spawning.
Figure 13.4 Model of a tagał (conical net) used with the class.
Figure 13.5 Tagał showing anchor posts used in Dzawadi, Knight Inlet,
showing entrance to the net suspended below.
Figure 13.6 Traditional dzaxwan (oolichan) fishing.
Figure 13.7 Extremely high pit of dzaxwan.
Figure 13.8 Arthur Dick Sr. and Jr. carrying a tub of dzaxwan.
Figure 13.9 Richard Smith Sr. dumping a tub of dzaxwan into a pit.
Figure 13.10 Barbara Cranmer sits in front of a loaded pit.
Figure 13.11 Miniature samgat’si (cooking box).
Figure 13.12 Students checking out the tools and miniature cooking box.
Figure 13.13 Skimming the t’łi’na in Dzawadi.
Figure 13.14 Awayu (skimmer) showing an eagle wing and t’łi’na.
Figure 13.15 T’łi’na given away at Arthur Dick Sr.’s T’łi’nagila (grease potlatch) memorial
for his late aunt Lucy Brown.
Figure 13.16 Arthur Dick’s sister Daisy Joseph, daughter Gwi’molas Vera Newman and aunties,
Ethel Alfred, Stella Sumners, and cousin Christine Taylor holding grease spoons and
wolf feast dish at a T’łi’nagila he hosted.
Figure 14.1
Ceremonial instruments of the Kwakwaka’wakw.
Figure 14.2 The Kwakwaka’wakw drum is a hollowed out cedar log,
and sits up to 12 drummers on either side.
Figure 14.3 Kwakwaka’wakw dancer wearing raven mask during Hamat’sa.
Figure 14.4 Bentwood box depicting Raven releasing Sun by
‘Namgis master carver Bruce Alfred.
Figure 14.5 Bentwood box depicting darkness replace by sunlight by
‘Namgis master carver Bruce Alfred.
Figure 14.6 Bentwood box depicting sun taking over the world by
‘Namgis master carver Bruce Alfred.
Figure 14.7 ‘Namgis master carver Bruce Alfred painting a bentwood box.
Figure 14.8 David Garrick demonstrates how to make cedar planks.
Figure 14.9 Simple machines used to make cedar planks.
Figure 14.10 Student displays a cedar plank.
Figure 14.11 Students practice making cedar planks.
Figure 14.12 Splitting a plank from a standing cedar tree.
Figure 14.13 Splitting cedar planks.
Figure 14.14 Students putting designs on their cedar bentwood boxes.
Figure 14.15 Completed cedar bentwood boxes with designs.
Figure 14.16 Student’s example of food energy flow.
Figure 14.17 Student’s example of Ecological Pyramid.
Figure 15.1 Student measuring skunk cabbage with a ruler in the field notebook.
Figure 15.2 Harvesting Ksiiw with Gitga’at Elder Archie Dundas.
Figure 15.3 Harvested Devil’s Club by student.

 

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