Adamson, C. (2012) Learning in a VUCA worldOnline Educa Berlin News Portal, November 13

Agarwal, A. (2013) The Developing World of MOOCs Boston: MIT (Linc 2013 conference video: 1hr 34 mins in.)

AlDahdouh, A., et al. (2015) Understanding knowledge network, learning and connectivismInternational Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, Vol. 12, No.10

Allen, I. and Seaman, J. (2014) Grade Change: Tracking Online Learning in the United States Wellesley MA: Babson College/Sloan Foundation

Anastasiadis, T. et al. (2018) Digital Game-based Learning and Serious Games in Education International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 12

Anderson, C. (2008) The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete Wired Magazine, 16.07

Anderson, L. and Krathwohl, D. (eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives New York: Longman

Anderson, T. (ed.) (2008) The Theory and Practice of Online Learning Athabasca AB: Athabasca University Press

Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, R., & Archer, W. (2001) Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 5, No.2

Arenas, E. (2015) Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments The Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 13 No. 4  (pp 217-227)

Arnab, S. et al. (2014) Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysisBritish Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp 391–411

Ausubel, D., Novak, J., & Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd Ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Atherton J. S. (2013Learning and Teaching; Bloom’s taxonomyretrieved 7 May 2019

Atkinson, M.P. (2001) The scholarship of teaching and learning: reconceptualizing scholarship and transforming the academy Social Forces, Vol. 79, No. 4 (pp. 1217-1229)

AUCC (2011) Trends in Higher Education: Volume 1-Enrolment Ottawa ON: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada


Badia, A., Barberà, E., Guasch, T., Espasa, A. (2011). Technology educational affordance: Bridging the gap between patterns of interaction and technology usage in: Digital Education Review, Vol.19, pp 20-35

Baker, C. (2010) The Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Presence for Online Student Affective Learning, Cognition, and Motivation The Journal of Educators Online Vol. 7, No. 1

Baker, R. and Passmore, D. (2016) Value and Pricing of MOOCs Education Sciences, 27 May

Balfour, S. P. (2013) Assessing writing in MOOCs: Automated essay scoring and calibrated peer review Research & Practice in Assessment, Vol. 8

Banchi, H., and Bell, R. (2008) ‘The Many Levels of Inquiry’ Science and Children, Vol. 46, No. 2

Banks, C. and Meinert, E. (2016) The acceptability of MOOC certificates in the workplace International Conference eLearning 2016

Barkley, E., Major, C.H., and Cross, K.P. (2014) Collaborative Learning Techniques San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley

Barnard, R. et al. (2014) Detecting bias in meta-analyses of distance education research: big pictures we can rely on Distance Education Vol. 35, No. 3

Bates, A. (1981) ‘Some unique educational characteristics of television and some implications for teaching or learning‘ Journal of Educational Television Vol. 7, No.3

Bates, A. (1984Broadcasting in Education: An Evaluation London: Constables

Bates, A. (1995) Teaching, Open Learning and Distance Education London/New York: Routledge

Bates, A. (2005) Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education London/New York: Routledge

Bates, A. and Gallagher, M. (1977) Improving the Effectiveness of Open University Television Case-Studies and Documentaries Milton Keynes: The Open University (I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting, No. 77)

Bates, A. and Poole, G. (2003) Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Bates, A. and Sangrà, A. (2011) Managing Technology in Higher Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley and Co

Bates, S. (2016) The 21st Century Educator Burnaby BC: BCIT Faculty of Nursing Scholarship Day, May

Bates, T. (2011) Cloud-based educational technology and privacy: a Canadian perspective, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, March 25

Bates, T. (2011) Marshall McLuhan and his relevance to teaching with technology,  Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, July 20

Bates, T. (2011) ‘Understanding Web 2.0 and Its Implications for e-Learning’ in Lee, M. and McCoughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning Hershey NY: Information Science Reference

Bates, T. (2012) Pedagogical roles for video in online learning, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, March 10

Bates, T. (2012) What’s right and what’s wrong with Coursera-style MOOCs Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, August 5

Bates, T. (2013) UBC is going big with online and flexible learning Online and Distance Education Resources, March 12

Bates, T. (2013) Productivity and online learning redux, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, December 23

Bates, T. (2014) Synergies between online learning, on-campus teaching and flexible learning Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, April 20

Bates, T. (2015) Writing an online, open textbook: is it worth it? Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, June 10

Bates, T. (2015) Thinking about theory and practice, Open Learning and Distance Education Resources, July 29

Bates, T. et al. (2018) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges 2018 Halifax: Canadian Digital Learning Research Association

Bayne, S. (2014) Teaching, Research and the More-than-Human in Digital Education Oxford UK: EDEN Research Workshop (keynote: no printed record available)

Bayne, S. (2015) Teacherbot: interventions in automated teachingTeaching in Higher Education, Vol. 20, No.4, pp. 455-467

Baytak, A. (undated) Media selection and design: a case in distance education

Beasly-Murray, J.  (2008) Was introducing Wikipedia to the classroom an act of madness leading only to mayhem if not murder? Wikipedia, March 18

Berk, R.A. (2009) Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube and mtvU in the college classroomInternational Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, Vol. 91, No. 5

Bernard, R. (2017) ‘Open textbooks’ catching on at BC colleges and universities CityNews, February 10

Bertram, J. (2013) Agile Learning Design for Beginners New Palestine IN: Bottom Line Performance

Bishop, J. (2011)  Facebook Privacy Policy: Will Changes End Facebook for Colleges? The Higher Ed CIO, October 4

Bligh, D. (2000) What’s the Use of Lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company

Book, P. (2013) ACE as Academic Credit Reviewer–Adjustment, Accommodation, and Acceptance WCET Learn, July 25

Book, P. (2014) All Hands on Deck: Ten Lessons form Early Adopters of Competency-based Education Boulder CO: WCET

Boswell, J. (1791), The Life of Samuel Johnson, New York: Penguin Classics (edited by Hibbert, C., 1986)

Brandaõ, G. et al. (2018) Virtual Reality as a Tool for Teaching Architecture in Design, User Experience, and Usability: Designing Interactions Las Vegas NV: Proceedings of 7th International Conference, DUXU 2018, held as Part of HCI International 2018

Brindley, J., Walti, C. and Blashke, L. (2009) Creating Effective Collaborative Learning Groups in an Online Environment International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 10, No. 3

Brokop, F. (2008) Accessibility to E-Learning for Persons With Disabilities: Strategies, Guidelines, and Standards Edmonton AB: NorQuest College/eCampus Alberta

Brown, J. and Duguid, Paul (2000). Balancing act: How to capture knowledge without killing it. Harvard Business Review

Butcher, N. and Wilson-Strydom, M. (2013) A Guide to Quality in Online Learning Dallas TX: Academic Partnerships

Butcher, N. and Hoosen, S. (2014) A Guide to Quality in Post-traditional Online Higher Education Dallas TX: Academic Partnerships


Cambridge, D., Kaplan, S. and Suter, V. (2005) Community of Practice Design Guide Louisville  CO: EDUCAUSE

Cañado, P. and Luisa, M. (eds.) (2013) Competency-based Language Teaching in Higher Education New York: Springer

Candy, P. (1991) Self-direction for lifelong learning San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Caulfield, M. (2015) Asking What Students Spend on Textbooks Is the Wrong QuestionHapgood, November 9

Carey, K. (2015) The End of College New York: Riverhead Books

Carey, T., & Trick, D. (2013). How Online Learning Affects Productivity, Cost and Quality in Higher Education: An Environmental Scan and Review of the Literature. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario

Carvalho-Fina, M. et al. (2019) Twelve tips for implementing a community of practice for faculty development Medical Teacher, February 1

Castells, M. (2009The Rise of the Network Society Hoboken NJ: Wiley

Chauhan, A. (2014) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS): Emerging Trends in Assessment and Accreditation Digital Education Review, No. 25

Chickering, A., and Gamson, Z. (1987) ‘Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education’ AAHE Bulletin, March 1987

Chiose, S. (2018) Increased pressures, class sizes, taking their toll on faculties in academia, Globe and Mail, May 12

Christensen, C. (2016) Disrupting Class, Expanded Edition: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns: Expanded Edition New York: McGraw-Hill

Christensen Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. (2010) Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Montreal and  Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press

Clark, R. (1983) Reconsidering research on learning from media Review of Educational Research, Vol. 53. No. 4

Clarke-Okah, W. et al. (2014) The Commonwealth of Learning Review and Improvement Model for Higher Education Institutions Vancouver BC: Commonwealth of Learning

Cleveland-Innes, M. (2012) ‘Teaching in an online community of inquiry: student, faculty, and institutional adjustment in the new higher education’, in Akyol, Z. & Garrison, R.D. (Eds.) Educational communities of inquiry: theoretical framework, research and practice, (pp. 389-400)Hershey, PA: IGI Global. 

Collins, E. (2013) SJSU Plus Augmented Online Learning Environment Pilot Project Report San Jose CA: San Jose State University

Colvin, K. et al. (2014) Learning an Introductory Physics MOOC: All Cohorts Learn Equally, Including On-Campus Class, IRRODL, Vol. 15, No. 4

Committee on Higher Education (1963), Higher education: report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins 1961-63, Cmnd. 2154, London: HMSO

Conference Board of Canada (2014) Employability Skills 2000+ Ottawa ON: Conference Board of Canada

Connolly, B. (2018) How virtual reality is transforming learning at the University of Newcastle, CIO, 8 March

Conole, G. (2014) The 7Cs of Learning Design – a new approach to rethinking design practice 9th International Conference on Networked Learning, Edinburgh

Contact North (2013) The Colorado Community College System Sudbury ON: Contact North

Contact North (2019) Searchable Directory of More than 65 Open Universities Worldwide Sudbury ON:

Coolidge, A. et al (2018) B.C. Open Textbook Accessibility Toolkit Victoria BC: BCcampus

Council of Ontario Universities (2012) Increased numbers of students heading to Ontario universities Toronto ON: COU

Crowther, G. (1969) This is the Open University, London, UK, 23 July


Dabbagh, N. (2007). The online learner: characteristics and pedagogical implicationsContemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 217- 226.

Daniel, J. (1998) Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media: Technology Strategies for Higher Education. London: Kogan Page

Daniel, J. (2012) Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility Seoul: Korean National Open University

DeNoyelles, A. and Raible, J. (2017) Exploring the Use of E-Textbooks in Higher Education: A Multiyear Study EDUCAUSE Review, October 9

DeRosa, R. and Robison, S. (2017) From OER to Open Pedagogy: Harnessing the Power of Open in Jhangiani, R S. and Biswas-Diener, R. (2017 Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science London: Ubiquity Press.

Deterding, S. et al. (2011) Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts in PART 2-Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems Vancouver BC: CHI

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & Education. New York, NY: Macmillan

Dick, W., and Carey, L. (2004). The Systematic Design of Instruction Allyn & Bacon; 6 edition Allyn & Bacon

Dichev, C. and Dicheva, D. (2017) Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, Vol. 14, No. 9

Digital Learning Compass (2017) Distance Education Enrolment Report 2017 Wellesley MA

Dillenbourg, P. (ed.) (1999) Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Oxford: Elsevier

Dillenbourg, P. (2014) MOOCs: Two Years Later, Oxford UK: EDEN Research Workshop (keynote: no printed record available)

Dingyloudi, F. and Strijbos, J. (2015) Examining value creation in a community of learning practice: Methodological reflections on story-telling and story-reading, Vol. 11, No.3

Djafarova, N. et el. (2018) The Art of Serious Game Design Toronto ON: Chang School of Continuing Studies, Ryerson University

Donovan, T. et al. (2018) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2018 Halifax NS: Canadian Digital Learning Research Association

Donovan, T. et al. (2019) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2019 Canadian National Survey of Online and Distance Education Halifax NS: Canadian Digital Learning Research Association

Downes, S. (2007) What connectivism is Half An Hour, February 3

Downes, S. (2012) Massively Open Online Courses are here to stay, Stephen’s Web, July 20

Downes, S. (2014) The MOOC of One, Stephen’s Web, March 10

Durbridge, N. (1983) Design implications of audio and video cassettes Milton Keynes: Open University Institute of Educational Technology

Durbridge, N. (1984) Audio cassettes, in Bates, A. (ed.) The Role of Technology in Distance Education London: Routledge (re-published in 2014)

Dziuban, C. et al. (2000) Reactive behavior patterns go online  The Journal of Staff, Program and Organizational Development, Vol. 17, No.3


EAB (2015) Three Myths About Competency-Based Education Washington DC: Education Advisory Board

Earle, L. (2003) Assessment as Learning Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (2005) Seven things you should know about… podcasting Boulder CO: EDUCAUSE, June

Elmqadden, N. (2019) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education: Myth or Reality? International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, Vol. 14, No. 3

Engle, W. (2104) UBC MOOC Pilot: Design and Delivery Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia

Entwistle, N. (2000) Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment: conceptual frameworks and educational contexts Leicester UK: TLRP Conference

Entwistle, N. and Peterson, E. (2004) Conceptions of Learning and Knowledge in Higher Education: Relationships with Study Behaviour and Influences of Learning Environments International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 407-428

Entwistle, N. (2010) ‘Taking Stock: An Overview of Research Findings’ in Christensen Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. (eds.) Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Montreal and  Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press

Eradze M., Tammets K. (2017) Learning Analytics in MOOCs: EMMA Case. In: Lauro N., Amaturo E., Grassia M., Aragona B., Marino M. (eds) Data Science and Social Research: Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization Springer: Cham

Evans, T., Haughey, M. and Murphy, D. (2008) International Handbook of Distance Education Bingley UK: Emerald Publishing


Falchikov, N. and Goldfinch, J. (2000) Student Peer Assessment in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Marks Review of Educational Research, Vol. 70, No. 3

Falconer, I. et al. (2013) Overview and Analysis of Practices with Open Educational Resources in Adult Education in Europe Seville, Spain: European Commission Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Fallow, S. and Stevens, C. (2000) Integrating key skills in higher education Sterling VA/London: Routledge

Farrar, D. (2014) Flexible Learning: September 2014 Update Flexible Learning, University of British Columbia (accessed 20 February, 2015, but no longer available)

Feathers, T. (2019) Flawed Algorithms Are Grading Millions of Students’ EssaysMotherboard: Tech by Vice, 20 August

Figlio, D., Rush, N. and Yin, L. (2010) Is it Live or is it Internet? Experimental Estimates of the Effects of Online Instruction on Student Learning Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research

Finnie, R. et al. (2018) Measuring Critical-thinking Skills of Postsecondary Students Toronto ON: HEQCO

Firmin, R. et al. (2014) Case study: using MOOCs for conventional college coursework Distance Education, Vol. 35, No. 2

Fischer, K. (1980) A Theory of Cognitive Development: The Control and Construction of Hierarchies of Skills, Psychological Review, Vol. 87, No. 6

Florida Virtual Campus (2016) 2016 Florida Student Textbook & Course Materials Survey. Tallahassee, FL.

Fontana, D. (1981) Psychology for Teachers London: Macmillan/British Psychological Society

Frenette, M. (2017) Postsecondary Enrolment by Parental Income: Recent National and Provincial Trends Ottawa: Statistics Canada

Friedman, T. (2013) Revolution Hits the Universities New York Times, January 26

Freire, P. (2004). Pedagogy of Indignation. Boulder CO: Paradigm

Fukuyama, F. (2011) The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux

Fukuyama, F. (2014) Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux


Gallagher, C. (2019) Integrative Learning for a Divided World Baltimore ML: John Hopkins Press

Gallup, A. et al. (2019) Contagious yawning in virtual reality is affected by actual, but not simulated, social presence Nature: Scientific Reports, 22 January

Gardner, H. (1983) Frame of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences New York: Basic Books

Gardner, H. (2006) Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons and Theory in Practice New York: Basic Books

Garrett, R. and Lurie, H. (2016) Deconstructing CBE: An Assessment of Institutional Activity, Goals and Challenges in Higher Education Boston MA: Ellucian/Eduventures

Garrison, R., Anderson, A. and Archer, W. (2000) Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education The Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 2, No. 3

Garrison, D. R. & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 19, No. 3

Gatuguta-Gitau, S. (2017) MOOCs: Employers View, a brief snapshot QS, London, UK

Gibson, J.J.  (1979) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Gilbert, J. (2005) Catching the Knowledge Wave: the Knowledge Society and the Future of Education Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Council for Educational Research 

Gijselaers, W., (1995) ‘Perspectives on problem-based learning’ in Gijselaers, W, Tempelaar, D, Keizer, P, Blommaert, J, Bernard, E & Kapser, H (eds) Educational Innovation in Economics and Business Administration: The Case of Problem-Based Learning. Dordrecht, Kluwer.

Golding, W. (1954) The Lord of the Flies London: Faber and Faber

Gordon, A. (2018) ‘Micromasters surge as MOOCs go from education to qualification‘, Forbes, 13 February

Graham, C. et al. (2001) Seven Principles of Effective Teaching: A Practical Lens for Evaluating Online Courses The Technology Source, March/April

Green, C. (2013) Open Education, MOOCs, Student Debt, Textbooks and Other Trends Vancouver BC: COHERE 2013 conference

Green, K. (2013) Mission, money and MOOCs Association of Governing Boards Trusteeship, No. 1, Volume 21

Gross-Loh, C. (2016) Should colleges really eliminate the college lecture? The Atlantic, 14 July

Grundin, H. 1981) Open University Broadcasting Times and their Impact on Students’ Viewing/Listening Milton Keynes: The Open University Institute of Educational Technology

Guhlin, M. (2011) Education Experiment Ends, Around the Corner –, September 22

Gunawardena, C., Lowe, C. & Carabajal, K. (2000). Evaluating Online Learning: models and methods. In Willis, D. et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2000 (pp. 1677-1684). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Guo, P. (2013) Optimal video length for optimal student engagement, edX, 13 November


Halverson, L. R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., & Drysdale, J. S. (2012). ‘An analysis of high impact scholarship and publication trends in blended learning’ Distance Education, Vol. 33, No. 3

Hampson, K. (2013) The next chapter for digital instructional media: content as a competitive difference Vancouver BC: COHERE 2013 conference

Harasim, L. (2017) Learning Theory and Online Technologies 2nd edition New York/London: Taylor and Francis

Haynie, D. (2014). State Department hosts ‘MOOC Camp’ for online learners US News, January 20

Hegarty, B. (2015) Attributes of open pedagogy: a model for using open educational resources Educational Technology, July-August

Hendry, J. (2018) Govts dump NAPLAN robo marking plans itnews, 30 January

Hernandez, R. et al. (2014) Promoting engagement in MOOCs through social collaboration Oxford UK: Proceedings of the 8th EDEN Research Workshop

Herreid, C. F. (2007). Start with a story: The case study method of teaching college science. Arlington VA: NSTA Press.

Heslop, J. (2016) Education Pathways for High School Graduates and Non-Graduates Victoria BC: Student Transitions Project, Government of British Columbia

Hill, P. (2012) Four Barriers that MOOCs Must Overcome to Build a Sustainable Model e-Literate, July 24

Hill, P. (2013) Some validation of MOOC student patterns graphic, e-Literate, August 30

Hill, P. (2015) How Much Do College Students Actually Pay For Textbooks? e-Literate, March 25

Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R’s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 25, No. 1

Hiltz, R. and Turoff, M. (1978) The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer Reading MA: Addison-Wesley

Hofer, B. and Pintrich, P. (1997) ‘The development of epistemological theories: beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning’ Review of Educational Research Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 88-140

Ho, A. et al. (2014) HarvardX and MITx: The First Year of Open Online Courses Fall 2012-Summer 2013 (HarvardX and MITx Working Paper No. 1), January 21

Hollands, F. and Tirthali, D. (2014) MOOCs: Expectations and Realities New York: Columbia University Teachers’ College

Holmberg, B. (1989) Theory and Practice of Distance Education New York: Routledge

Hülsmann, T. (2000) The Costs of Open Learning: A Handbook Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssytem der Universität Oldenburg

Hülsmann, T. (2003) Costs without camouflage: a cost analysis of Oldenburg University’s  two graduate certificate programs offered  as part of the online Master of Distance Education (MDE): a case study, in Bernath, U. and Rubin, E., (eds.) Reflections on Teaching in an Online Program: A Case Study Oldenburg, Germany: Bibliothecks-und Informationssystem der Carl von Ossietsky Universität Oldenburg

Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research, in Proceedings of the Challenges in Game AI Workshop, San Jose CA: Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence


Illich, I. (1971) Deschooling SocietyNew York: Harper and Row

International Telecommunications Union (2018) UN Broadband Commission sets global broadband targets to bring online the world’s 3.8 billion not connected to the Internet Davos: United Nations Broadband Commission

Irby, D. (1994) Three exemplary models of case-based teaching Academic Medicine, Vol. 69, No. 12


Jamison, D. and Klees, S. (1973) The Cost of Instructional Radio and Television for Developing Countries Stanford CA: Stanford University Institute for Communication Research

Jaschik, S. (2013) MOOC Mess, Inside Higher Education, February 4

Jaschik, S. and Letterman, D. (2014) The 2014 Inside Higher Ed Survey of Faculty Attitudes to Technology Washington DC: Inside Higher Ed

Jhangiani, R. and Jhangiani, S. (2017) Investigating the Perceptions, Use, and Impact of Open Textbooks: A survey of Post-Secondary Students in British Columbia International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, Vol. 18, No.4

Johnson, H. and Mejia, M. (2014) Online learning and student outcomes in California’s community colleges San Francisco CA: Public Policy Institute of California

Johnson, S. (2019) Much ado about MOOCs: Where are we in the evolution of MOOCs? Edsurge On Air, 26 February

Jones, C. and Shao, B. (2011) The Net Generation and Digital Natives: Implications for Higher Education Milton Keynes: Open University/Higher Education Academy

Jonker, L. and Hicks, M. (2014) Teaching Loads and Research Outputs of Ontario University Faculty: Implications for Productivity and Differentiation Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario

Jung, I. and Gunawardena, C. (eds.) (2014) Culture and Online Learning: Global Perspectives and Research Sterling VA: Stylus

Jung, I. and Latchem, C. (2012) Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Distance Education and e-Learning New York/London: Routledge


Kamenetz, A. (2010) DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs, and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education White River Junction VT: Chelsea Green

Kao, J. (2019) Ontario’s 2019 budget reveals plan to significantly tie university funding to performance outcomes The Varsity, University of Toronto

Kaplan, A. and Haenlein, M. (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 59-68

Keegan, D. (ed.)  (1990) Theoretical Principles of Distance Education London/New York: Routledge

Keen, A. (2007) The Cult of the Amateur: How Today’s Internet is Killing our Culture New York/London: Doubleday

Kennepohl, D. (2010) Accessible Elements: Teaching Science Online and at a Distance Athabasca AB: Athabasca University Press

Kirshner, P., Sweller, J. and Clark, R. (2006) Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching Educational Psychologist, Vo. 41, No.2

Klassen, V. (2011) Privacy and Cloud-­Based  Educational Technology in British Columbia Vancouver BC: BCCampus

Klutka, J. et al. (2018) Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: Current Uses and Future Applications Louisville Ky: Learning House

Knapper, C. (2010) ‘Changing Teaching Practice: Barriers and Strategies’ in Christensen-Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. eds. Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Toronto ON: McGill-Queen’s University Press

Knowles, M. (1984) Andragogy in Action. Applying modern principles of adult education, San Francisco: Jossey Bass

Knox, J. (2014) Digital culture clash: ‘massive’ education in the e-Learning and Digital Cultures Distance Education, Vol. 35, No. 2

Koller, D. (2102) What we’re learning from online education TED talks, June 2012

Kolb. D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall

Kop, R. (2011) The Challenges to Connectivist Learning on Open Online Networks: Learning Experiences during a Massive Open Online Course International Review of Research into Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 12, No. 3

Kop, R, and Hill, A. (2008) Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past? International Review of Research into Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 9., No. 3

Koumi, J. (1994) Media comparisons and deployment: a practitioner’s view British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 25, No. 1.

Koumi, J. (2006) Designing video and multimedia for open and flexible learningLondon: Routledge.

Koumi, J. (2015) Learning outcomes afforded by self-assessed, segmented video-print combinations Cogent Education, Vol. 2, No.1

Kozma, R. (1994) ‘Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate’Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 7-19

Krathwohl, D.R. (2002) A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview in Theory into Practice, Vol. 41, No. 4,  College of Education, The Ohio State University.


Lambert, S. and Williams R. (1999) A model for selecting educational technologies to improve student learning Melbourne, Australia: HERDSA Annual International Conference, July

Large, L. (2015) Rebundling College Inside Higher Ed, April 7

Larman, C. and Vodde, B. (2009) Scaling Lean and Agile Development New York: Addison-Wesley

Larmer, J. and Mergendoller, J. (2010) Seven essentials for project-based learning Educational Leadership, Vol. 68, No. 1

Laurillard, D. (2001) Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies New York/London: Routledge

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Laveti, R. et al. (2017) Implementation of learning analytics framework for MOOCs using state-of-the-art in-memory computingIEEE Xplore, 19 October

Lazandic, G., Justus, J.-A., and Rabinowitz, S. (2018) NAPLAN Online Automated Scoring Research Program: Research Report, Canberra, Australia: Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority

Lee, M. and McCoughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning Hershey NY: Information Science Reference

Leitonen, T. (2010) Designing Learning Tools: Methodological Insights Aalto, Finland: Aalto University School of Art and Design

Lewin, K. (1951) Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.). New York: Harper & Row

Li, Y, MacNeill, S., and Kraan, W. (undated) Open Educational Resources – Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Education Bolton UK: JISC-CETIS

Linderoth, J. (2013) Open letter to Dr. Ruben Puentedura Spelvetenskapliga betraktelser, 17 October

Living Heritage (undated) Going to school: the 1870 Education Act, London: UK Parliament

Lumina Foundation (2014) A stronger nation through higher education Indianapolis IN: The Lumina Foundation

Lynch, J. (2017) How AI will destroy educationbuZZrobot, 13 November

Lyotard, J-J. (1979) La Condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir: Paris: Minuit

Lyotard, J-J. (1984) The Post-Modern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Manchester: Manchester University Press


Macdonald, B. (2015) Peer assessment that works: A guide for teachers Lanham MD: Rowan and Littlefield

Mackenzie, W. (2002) Multiple Intelligences and Instructional Technology: A Manual for Every Mind. Eugene, Oregon: ISTE

Mackness, J. (2013) cMOOCs and xMOOCs – key differences, Jenny Mackness, October 22

Mak, S. et al. (2010). Blogs and forums as communication and learning tools in a MOOC  in L. Dirckinck-Holmfeld et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning 2010 (pp. 275–284)

Manguel, A. (1996) A History of Reading London: Harper Collins

Marcus, G. Taylor, R. and Ellis, R. (2004) Implications for the design of online case-based learning activities based on the student blended learning experience: Perth, Australia: Proceedings of the ASCILITE conference, 2004

Marron, D. Missen, C. and Greenberg, J. (2014) “Lo-Fi to Hi-Fi”: A New Way of Conceptualizing Metadata in Underserved Areas with the eGranary Digital Library Austin TX: International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications

Marshall, K. (2011) Employment patterns of post-secondary students, Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, November 11

Marshall, L. and Rowland, F. (1993) A Guide to learning independently Buckingham UK: Open University Press

Marshall, S. (2007). eMM Version Two Process Assessment Workbook Version 2.3 Wellington NZ: Victoria University of Wellington

Marton, F. and Saljö, R. (1997) Approaches to learning, in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds.) The experience of learning Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press

Mayer, R. E. (2009) Multimedia learning (2nd ed). New York: Cambridge University Press

Mayfield, E. (2013) Six ways the edX Announcement Gets Automated Essay Grading Wronge-Literate, April 8

McCoughlin, C. (1999) The implictions of the research literature on learning styles for the design of instructional material Australian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 15, No. 3

McCoughlin, C. and Lee, M. (2011) ‘Pedagogy 2.0: Critical Challenges and Responses to Web 2.0 and Social Software in Tertiary Teaching’, in Lee, M. and McCoughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning Hershey NY: Information Science Reference

McKeachie, W. and Svinicki, M. (2006) McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research and Theory for College and University Teachers Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin

McLuhan, M. (1964) Understanding Media London/New York: Routledge 

Means, B. et al. (2009) Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies Washington, DC: US Department of Education

Meier, D. (2000) The Accelerated Learning Handbook New York: McGraw-Hill

Milligan, C. (2012) Change 11 SRL-MOOC study: initial findings Learning in the Workplace, December 19

Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A. and Margaryan, A. (2013) Patterns of engagement in connectivist MOOCs, Merlot Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 9, No. 2

Moon, J.A. (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice New York: Routledge

Moore, M.G. (1973) Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and TeachingJournal of Higher Education, Volume 44, No. 9

Moore, M.G. (1989) Three types of interaction American Journal of Distance Education, Vol.3, No.2

Moore, M.G. and Kearsley, G. (1996) Distance Education: A Systems View Belmont CA: Wadsworth

Moore, M.G. and Thompson, M. (1990) The Effects of Distance Education: A Summary of the Literature University Park, PA: American Center for Distance Education, Pennsylvania State University

Morgan, T. (2017) Reflections on #OER17 – From Beyond Content to Open Pedagogy Explorations in the Ed Tech World, 13 April

Morrison, Gary R. (2010) Designing Effective Instruction6th Edition New York: John Wiley & Sons

Murphy, E. (2103) Day 2 panel discussion Vancouver BC: COHERE 2013 conference (video: 4’40” from start)


Nel, C., Dreyer, C. and Carstens  (2001) Educational Technologies: A Classification and Evaluation Journal for Language Teaching Vol. 35, No. 4

Ng, A. (2013) Learning from MOOCs Inside Higher Education, January 24

O’Connor, M. et al. (2018) Sampling molecular conformations and dynamics in a multiuser virtual reality frameworkScience Advances, Vol. 4, No.6, 29 June

O’Donoghue, M. (2014) Producing video for teaching and Learning New York: Routledge

OECD (2013a) OECD Skills Outlook 2013 First results From the Survey of Adult Skills Paris: OECD

OECD (2013b) Competition Policy and Knowledge-Based Capital: Key Findings Paris: OECD

OECD (2017) OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding Paris FR: OECD

Olson, D. and Bruner, J. (1974) ‘Learning through experience and learning through media’, in Olson, D. (ed.) Media and Symbols: the Forms of Expression Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Ongweso jr. E. (2019) Racial Bias in AI Isn’t Getting Better and Neither Are Researchers’ Excuses Motherboard: Tech by Vice, July 29

Ontario (2011) Fact Sheet Summary of Ontario eLearning Surveys of Publicly Assisted PSE Institutions Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities

Ontario (2012) Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge Toronto ON: Provincial Government of Ontario


Page-Bucci, H. (2002) Developing an Evaluation Model for a Virtual Learning Environment: accessed at

Paloff, R. and Pratt, K. (2005) Collaborating Online: Learning Together in Community San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Paloff, R. and Pratt, K. (2007) Building Online Learning Communities: Effective Strategies for the Virtual Classroom San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Paquette, C. (1979) Quelques fondements d’une pédagogie ouverte Québec Français, Vol. 36

Parachuri, V. (2013) On the automated scoring of essays and the lessons learned along the,  July 31

Pask, G. (1975) Conversation, Cognition and Learning Amsterdam/London: Elsevier (out of press, but available online here)

Patsula, P. (2002) Practical guidelines for selecting media: An international perspective The Useableword Monitor, February 1

Perelman. L. (2013) Critique of Mark D. Shermis & Ben Hamner, Contrasting State-of-the-Art Automated Scoring of Essays: AnalysisJournal of Writing Assessment, Vol. 6, No.1

Perry, W. (1970) Forms of intellectual development and ethical development in the college years: a scheme New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston

Perry, W. (1976) The Open University Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Peters, O. (1983) Distance education and industrial production, in Sewart et al. (eds.) Distance Education: International Perspectives London: Croom Helm

Peters, O. (2002) Distance Education in Transition: New Trends and Challenges Oldenberg FGR: Biblothecks und Informationssystemder Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenberg

Piaget, J. and Inhelder, B., (1958) The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence New York: Basic Books, 1958

Picciano, A., Dziuban, C. and & Graham, C. (eds.), Blended Learning: Research Perspectives, Volume 2. New York: Routledge, 2013

Pickard, L. (2018) Analysis of 450 MOOC-Based Microcredentials Reveals Many Options But Little ConsistencyClass Central, July 18

Piech, C., Huang, J., Chen, Z., Do, C., Ng, A., & Koller, D. (2013) Tuned models of peer assessment in MOOCs. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University

Pilli, O. amd Admiraal, W. (2016) A Taxonomy of Massive Open Online Courses  Contemporary Educational Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 223-240

Postlethwaite, S. N. (1969) The Audio-Tutorial Approach to Learning Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company

Pratt, D. (1998) Five Perspectives on Teaching in Adult and Higher Education Malabar FL: Krieger Publishing Company

Pratt, D. and Johnson, J. (1998) ‘The Apprenticeship Perspective: Modelling Ways of Being’ in Pratt, D. (ed.) Five Perspectives on Teaching in Adult and Higher Education Malabar FL: Krieger Publishing Company

Prensky, M. (2001) Digital natives, Digital ImmigrantOn the Horizon Vol. 9, No. 5

Puentedura, R. (2014) SAMR and Bloom’s Taxonomy: Assembling the Puzzle common sense education, September 24

Puzziferro, M., & Shelton, K. (2008). A model for developing high-quality online courses: Integrating a systems approach with learning theory Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 12, Nos. 3-4


Radianti, J. et al. (2020) A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda Computers & Education, Vol. 147, April

Rawsthorne, P. (2012) Agile Instructional Design St. John’s NF: Memorial University of Newfoundland

Rhoades, G. (2000) ‘The changing role of faculty’ in Losco, J. and Fife, B. (eds.) Higher Education in Transition: the challenges of the new millennium Westport CT: Bergin and Garvey

Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2003) Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 7, No. 1

Ries, E. (2011) The Lean Start-Up New York: Crown Business/Random House

Rivera, C. (2012) Survey offers dire picture of California’s two-year colleges Los Angeles Times, August 28

Robbins, L. (1963) Higher Education Report London: Committee on Higher Education, HMSO

Robinson, B. and Moore, A. (2006)  Virginia Tech: the Math Emporium, in Oblinger, D. (ed.), Learning Spaces, Louisville CO: EDUCAUSE

Robinson, J. (1982) Broadcasting Over the Air London: BBC

Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to Learn Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co

Rolfson, E. (2019) People think and behave differently in virtual reality than they do in real life UBC News, 24 January

Rothwell, W. and Graber, J. (2010) Competency-Based Training Basics Alexandria VA: ADST

Rouse, M. (2019) What is chatbot? Techtarget Network Customer Experience, 5 January

Rousseau, J.-J. (1762) Émile, ou de l’Éducation  (Trans. Allan Bloom). New York: Basic Books, 1979

Royal Bank of Canada (2018) Humans Wanted Toronto ON: Royal Bank of Canada

Rugg, G. (2014) Education versus training, academic knowledge versus craft skills: Some useful concepts Hyde and Rugg, February 23

Rumble, G. (2001) The costs and costing of networked learning, Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 5, No. 2

Russell, S. and Norvig, P. (2010) Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach New Jersey: Pearson Education

Russell, T. L. (1999) The No Significant Difference Phenomenon Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, Office of Instructional Telecommunication


Saettler, P. (1990) The Evolution of American Educational Technology Englewood CO: Libraries Unlimited

Salmon, G. (2000) e-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online London: Taylor and Francis

Salmon, G. and Edirisingha, P. (2008) Podcasting for Learning in Universities Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Salomon, G. (1979) Interaction of Media, Cognition and Learning San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Salomon, G. (1981) Communication and Education Beverley Hills CA/London: Sage

Sarma, S. (2013) The Magic Beyond the MOOCs Boston MA: LINC 2013 conference

Scardamalia, M. and Bereiter, C. (2006) Knowledge Building: Theory, pedagogy and technology in Sawyer, K. (ed.) Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences New York: Cambridge University Press

Schmidt, S. and Shea, P. (2015) NANSLO Web-based Labs: Real Equipment, Real Data, Real People! WCET Frontiers

Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action New York: Basic Books

Schramm, W. (1972) Quality in Instructional Television Honolulu HA: University Press of Hawaii

Schramm, W. (1977) Big Media, Little Media Beverly Hills CA/London: Sage

Schroeder, C. (1993) New students – new learning styles, Change, Sept.-Oct

Schunk, D. (2016Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective: 7th edition London: Pearson Education

Searle, J. (1996) The construction of social reality. New York: Simon & Shuster

Seaman, J.E., Allen, I.E., and Seaman, J. (2018) Grade Increase: Tracking Distance Education in the United States Wellesley MA: The Babson Survey Research Group

Seidel, R. and Chatelier, P. (1997) Virtual Reality, Training’s Future?: Perspectives on Virtual Reality and Related Emerging Technologies Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media

Selwood, D. (2014) What does the Rosetta Stone tell us about the Bible? Did Moses read hieroglyphs? The Telegraph, July 15

Shah, D. (2019) Year of MOOC-based degrees: A Review of MOOC Stats and Trends in 2018 Class Central, 6 January

Shah, D. and Pickard. L. (2019) Massive list of MOOC providers around the world Class Central, 30 July

Shapiro, D., et al. (2016) Time to Degree: A National View of the Time Enrolled and Elapsed for Associate and Bachelor’s Degree Earners (Signature Report No. 11). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center.

Sharma, S. (2013) The Magic of the Campus Boston MA: LINC 2013 conference (recorded presentation)

Shea, P. et al. (2010) Online Instructional Effort Measured through the Lens of Teaching Presence in the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Re-Examination of Measures and Approach International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, Vol. 11, No. 3

Sheridan, K. and Kelly, M.  (2010) The Indicators of Instructor Presence that are Important to Students in Online Courses MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 6, No. 4

Siemens, G. (2005) Connectivism: a theory for the digital age International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, Vol. 2, No. 1.

Siemens, G., Downes, S., and Cormier, D. (2011) Connectivism and Connective Knowledge (a MOOC)

Simon Fraser University (2010) Task Force on Teaching and Learning: Recommendations Report Burnaby BC: Simon Fraser University

Skinner, B. (1968) The Technology of Teaching, 1968. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

Smith, M. K. (2003) ‘Communities of practice’, the encyclopedia of informal education, accessed 26 September, 2014, but no longer in press

Stacey, P. (2018) Global Education Commons Steward Musings on the Ed Tech Frontier, February 8

Steelcase Education (undated) Active Learning Spaces Michigan: Grand Rapids

Steelcase Education (undated)  Rethinking Space: Sparking Creativity Michigan: Grand Rapids

Strobel, J., and van Barneveld, A. (2009). When is PBL More Effective? A Meta-synthesis of Meta-analyses Comparing PBL to Conventional Classrooms. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based LearningVol. 3, No. 1

Suen, H. (2014) Peer assessment for massive open online courses (MOOCs) International Review of Research into Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 15, No. 3

Surowiecki, J. (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations New York: Random House

Sweller, J. (1988) Cognitive load during problem solving: effects on learningCognitive Science, Vol. 12


Tan, C.-M. (2012) Search Inside Yourself New York: Harper Collins

Tamim, R. et al. (2011) ‘What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study’ Review of Educational Research, Vol. 81, No. 1

Tapscott, D. (2008) Grown Up Digital New York: McGraw Hill

Tapscott, D. (undated) The transformation of education

To, K. (2014) UC Regents announce online course expansion, The Guardian, UC San Diego, undated, but probably February 5

Topping, K. (2108) Using Peer Assessment to Inspire Reflection and Learning London UK: Routledge

Trenaman, J. (1967) Communication and Comprehension London: Longmans


UBC Wikis (2014) Documentation: Design Principles for Multimedia Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia

U.K. Department of Education (2018) Participation Rates in Higher Education: Academic Years 2006/2007 – 2017/2018 (Provisional) London: Department of Education HE Statistics

UNESCO (2014) Education for All, 2000-2015: achievements and challenges Paris FR: The UNESCO 2015 EFA Global Monitoring Report team

UNESCO (2018)  One in Five Children, Adolescents and Youth is Out of School Paris FR: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Fact Sheet No 42

University of British Columbia (2017) 2016/2017 Annual Report on Enrolment Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia

University of Ottawa (2013)  Report of the e-Learning Working Group Ottawa ON: University of Ottawa

Usher, A. (2013) Financing Canadian Universities: A Self-Inflicted Wound (Part 5) Higher Education Strategy Associates One Thought a Day Blog, September 13

Usher, A. (2019) Managing Class Size One Thought to Start Your Day, Higher Education Strategy Associates, September 18


Valenti, M. (2013), in Williams, L., AV trends: hardware and software for sharing screens, University Business, June

van Zundert, M., Sluijsmans, D., van Merriënboer, J. (2010). Effective peer assessment processes: Research findings and future directions Learning and Instruction, 20, 270-279

Vesin, B. at al. (2018) Learning in smart environments: user-centered design and analytics of an adaptive learning system Smart Learning Environments, Vol. 5, No. 24

Vygotsky, L. (1978) Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press

Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and speech, in R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of general psychology (pp. 39–285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.)


Watters, A. (2012) Top 10 Ed-Tech Trends of 2012: MOOCs Hack Education, December 3

Wedemeyer, C. (1981) Learning at the Back Door: Reflections on Non-traditional Learning in the Lifespan Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

Weinbren, D. (2015) The Open University: A History Manchester UK: Manchester University Press/The Open University

Weiner, B. (2009) A theory of organizational readiness for change Implementation Science, Vol. 4, No. 67

Weingarten, H. et al. (2018) Measuring Essential Skills of Postsecondary Students: Final Report of the Essential Adult Skills Initiative Toronto ON: HEQCO

Weise, M. (2014) Got Skills? Why Online Competency-Based Education Is the Disruptive Innovation for Higher Education EDUCAUSE Review, November 10

Wenger, E. (2000) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press

Wenger, E. (2014) Communities of practice: a brief introduction, accessed 26 September, 2014

Wenger, E., McDermott, R., and Snyder, W. (2002) Cultivating Communities of Practice Harvard Business Press

Wenger, E., Trayner, B. and de Laat, M. (2011) Promoting and assessing value creation in communities and networks: a conceptual framework Heerlen NL: The Open University of the Netherlands

Wiley, D. (2017) When opens collideiterating toward openness, 21 April

Winkler, R. and Söllner, M. (2018): Unleashing the Potential of Chatbots in Education: A State-Of-The-Art AnalysisAcademy of Management Annual Meeting (AOM) Chicago: Illinois

Winn, B. (2009) ‘The design, play and experience framework’, in R. Ferdig (Ed.)Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in educationHershey, PA: IGI Global (pp. 388–401)

Woodley, A. and Simpson, O. (2014) ‘Student drop-out: the elephant in the room’ in Zawacki-Richter, O. and Anderson, T. (eds.) (2014) Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda Athabasca AB: AU Press, pp. 508


Yousef, A. et al. (2014) MOOCs: A Review of the State-of-the-Art Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Computer Supported Education – CSEDU 2014, Barcelona, Spain


Zaied, A. (2007) A Framework for Evaluating and Selecting Learning Technologies The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2

Zawacki-Richter, O. and Anderson, T. (eds.) (2014) Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda Athabasca AB: AU Press, pp. 508

Zawacki-Richter, O. et al. (2019) Systematic review of research on artificial intelligence applications in higher education – where are the educators? International Journal of Technology in Higher Education Vo.16, No. 39

Zeide, E. (2019) Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: Applications, Promise and Perils, and Ethical Questions EDUCAUSE Review, Vol. 54, No. 3, August 26

Zhonggen, Y. (2019) A Meta-Analysis of Use of Serious Games in Education over a DecadeInternational Journal of Computer Games Technology, vol. 2019, Article ID 4797032


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Teaching in a Digital Age - Second Edition Copyright © 2019 by Anthony William (Tony) Bates is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book