Note: at the end of each reference is a link to the relevant chapter(s) (e.g. Adamson, 4.7 = Chapter 4, Section 7).

All links operational on date of publication (August 2022). Please contact if link is dead.

Adamson, C. (2012) Learning in a VUCA world, Online Educa Berlin News Portal, November 13, 4.7

AlDahdouh, A., et al. (2015) Understanding knowledge network, learning and connectivismInternational Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, Vol. 12, No.10, 2.6

Allen, I, and Seaman, J. (2012) Conflicted: Faculty and Online Education, Babson Survey Research Group, 11.2

Allen, I. and Seaman, J. (2014) Grade Change: Tracking Online Learning in the United States Wellesley MA: Babson College/Sloan Foundation, 1.7,  5.5,

Allen, I. and Seaman, J. (2017) Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education Enrollment Report 2017 Babson Survey Research Group/eLiterate/WCET, 11.3

Anastasiadis, T. et al. (2018) Digital Game-based Learning and Serious Games in Education International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 12, 9.2

Anderson, C. (2008) The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete Wired Magazine, 16.07, 2.7,

Anderson, L. and Krathwohl, D. (eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives New York: Longman, 2.4

Anderson, T. (ed.) (2008) The Theory and Practice of Online Learning Athabasca AB: Athabasca University Press, 11.2

Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, R., & Archer, W. (2001) Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 5, No.2, 13.10

Arenas, E. (2015) Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments The Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 13 No. 4  (pp 217-227), 8.6

Arnab, S. et al. (2014) Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysisBritish Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp 391–411, 9.2

Arnett, T. (2021) A better way to do online learningBoston Globe, January 13, 11.1

Ausubel, D., Novak, J., & Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd Ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 3.4


Badia, A., Barberà, E., Guasch, T., Espasa, A. (2011). Technology educational affordance: Bridging the gap between patterns of interaction and technology usage in: Digital Education Review, Vol.19, pp 20-35, 8.6

Baker, C. (2010) The Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Presence for Online Student Affective Learning, Cognition, and Motivation The Journal of Educators Online Vol. 7, No. 1, 13.10

Baker, R. and Passmore, D. (2016) Value and Pricing of MOOCs Education Sciences, 27 May, 5.4

Balash, D. et al. (2021) Examining the Examiners: Students’ Privacy and Security Perceptions of Online Proctoring Services USENIX Proceedings of the Seventeenth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, August 9, 6.8

Balfour, S. P. (2013) Assessing writing in MOOCs: Automated essay scoring and calibrated peer review Research & Practice in Assessment, Vol. 8, 5.4

Banchi, H., and Bell, R. (2008) ‘The Many Levels of Inquiry’ Science and Children, Vol. 46, No. 2, 3.5

Banks, C. and Meinert, E. (2016) The acceptability of MOOC certificates in the workplace International Conference eLearning 2016, 5.3

Barbour, M. and LaBonte, R. (2019) State of the Nation:K-12 eLearning in Canada: 2019 edition CANeLearn, 1.7, 1.8

Barbour, M., LaBonte, R. and Nagle, J. (2021) State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada, 2021 edition Halfmoon Bay, BC: The Canadian eLearning Network, 11.1, 11.2, 13.1, 14.2  

Barkley, E., Major, C.H., and Cross, K.P. (2014) Collaborative Learning Techniques San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 4.4, 5.4

Bates, A. (1981) ‘Some unique educational characteristics of television and some implications for teaching or learning‘ Journal of Educational Television Vol. 7, No.3, 7.4

Bates, A. (1984Broadcasting in Education: An Evaluation London: Constables, 5.4, 7.2, 7.3,8.1, 8.3, 8.4  

Bates, A. (1995) Technology, Open Learning and Distance Education London/New York: Routledge, 10.1,

Bates, A. (2005) Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education London/New York: Routledge, 8.3, 8.4, 10.4, 11.2  

Bates, A. (2011) ‘Understanding Web 2.0 and Its Implications for e-Learning’ in Lee, M. and McCoughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning Hershey NY: Information Science Reference, 8.6, 9.1

Bates, A. and Gallagher, M. (1977) Improving the Effectiveness of Open University Television Case-Studies and Documentaries Milton Keynes: The Open University (I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting, No. 77), 7.7, 8.1, 8.4  (out of print – copies available from

Bates, A. and Poole, G. (2003) Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 4.4, 10.1, 14.4

Bates, A. and Sangrà, A. (2011) Managing Technology in Higher Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley and Co, 5.4 6.7, 10.4, 10.7, 13.4, 14.2, 14.6

Bates, A. et al. (2018) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2017 Halifax NS: Canadian Digital Learning Research Association, 1.7 4.2

Bates, S. (2016) The 21st Century Educator Burnaby BC: BCIT Faculty of Nursing Scholarship Day, May, 14.1

Bates, T. (2011) Cloud-based educational technology and privacy: a Canadian perspective, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, March 25, 10.9

Bates, T. (2011) Marshall McLuhan and his relevance to teaching with technology,  Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, July 20, 7.3

Bates, T. (2012) Pedagogical roles for video in online learning, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, March 10, 7.3

Bates, T. (2012) What’s right and what’s wrong with Coursera-style MOOCs Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, August 5, 5.5

Bates, T. (2013) Productivity and online learning redux, Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, December 23, 14.4

Bates, T. (2015) Writing an online, open textbook: is it worth it? Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, June 10,

Bates, T. (2015) Thinking about theory and practice, Open Learning and Distance Education Resources, July 29, 2.8

Bates, T. (2020) Online learning and Covid-19: Internet coverage in Canada Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, April 28, 1.8

Bates, T. (2021) Research showing that virtual learning is less effective than classroom teaching – right? Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, August 26, 1.8, 7.4

Bates, T. (2021b) Online learning in (k-12) schools: advice for decision-makers Online Learning and Distance Education Resources, January 21, 1.8

Bayne, S. (2015) Teacherbot: interventions in automated teachingTeaching in Higher Education, Vol. 20, No.4, pp. 455-467, 5.4, 9.4

Baytak, A. (undated) Media selection and design: a case in distance education, 10.1

Beasley-Murray, J.  (2008) Was introducing Wikipedia to the classroom an act of madness leading only to mayhem if not murder? Wikipedia, March 18, 10.8

Beattie, E. (2018) Open textbooks make education more accessible and affordableBCcampus, June 7, 12.3

Berk, R.A. (2009) Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube and mtvU in the college classroomInternational Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, Vol. 91, No. 5, 8.1

Bernard, R., et al. (2004) How Does Distance Education Compare With Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature Review of Educational Research, Vol. 74., No.3, 1.8

Bernard, R. et al. (2014) Detecting bias in meta-analyses of distance education research: big pictures we can rely on Distance Education Vol. 35, No. 3, 11.2

Bertram, J. (2013) Agile Learning Design for Beginners New Palestine IN: Bottom Line Performance, 4.6

Bishop, J. (2011)  Facebook Privacy Policy: Will Changes End Facebook for Colleges? The Higher Ed CIO, October 4, 10.9 [no longer available; see note on 10.9]

Bligh, D. (2000) What’s the Use of Lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1.5, 3.3

Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company, 2.4  3.6, 8.1, 13.8

Book, P. (2014) All Hands on Deck: Ten Lessons from Early Adopters of Competency-based Education Boulder CO: WCET, 4.5

Boswell, J. (1791), The Life of Samuel Johnson, New York: Penguin Classics (edited by Hibbert, C., 1986), 3.3

Brandaõ, G. et al. (2018) Virtual Reality as a Tool for Teaching Architecture in Design, User Experience, and Usability: Designing Interactions Las Vegas NV: Proceedings of 7th International Conference, DUXU 2018, held as Part of HCI International 2018, 9.3

Brindley, J., Walti, C. and Blashke, L. (2009) Creating Effective Collaborative Learning Groups in an Online Environment International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 10, No. 3, 4.4,  6.6

Brokop, F. (2008) Accessibility to E-Learning for Persons With Disabilities: Strategies, Guidelines, and Standards Edmonton AB: NorQuest College/eCampus Alberta, 10.2

Brooks, D.C. (2021) EDUCAUSE QuickPoll Results: Artificial Intelligence Use in Higher EducationEDUCAUSE Review, June 11, 9.4

Brown, J. and Duguid, Paul (2000). Balancing act: How to capture knowledge without killing it. Harvard Business Review, 4.6

Butcher, N. and Hoosen, S. (2014) A Guide to Quality in Post-traditional Online Higher Education Dallas TX: Academic Partnerships, 13.1


Cambridge, D., Kaplan, S. and Suter, V. (2005) Community of Practice Design Guide Louisville  CO: EDUCAUSE, 4.6

Cañado, P. and Luisa, M. (eds.) (2013) Competency-based Language Teaching in Higher Education New York: Springer, 4.5

Candy, P. (1991) Self-direction for lifelong learning San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 9.1

Carey, K. (2015) The End of College New York: Riverhead Books, 12.5

Carey, T., & Trick, D. (2013). How Online Learning Affects Productivity, Cost and Quality in Higher Education: An Environmental Scan and Review of the Literature. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario, 14.4

Carvalho-Fina, M. et al. (2019) Twelve tips for implementing a community of practice for faculty development Medical Teacher, February 1, 14.2

Castells, M. (2009The Rise of the Network Society Hoboken NJ: Wiley, 2.7

Caulfield, M. (2015) Asking What Students Spend on Textbooks Is the Wrong QuestionHapgood, November 9, 12.3

Cellini, R. S. (2021) How does virtual learning impact students in higher education? Brown Center Chalkboard, Brookings, August 13, 1.8

Chickering, A., and Gamson, Z. (1987) Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education Washington Center News (originally published in AAHE Bulletin, March 1987), 13.1

Chiose, S. (2018) Increased pressures, class sizes, taking their toll on faculties in academia, Globe and Mail, May 12, 14.4

Christensen, C. (2016) Disrupting Class, Expanded Edition: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns: Expanded Edition New York: McGraw-Hill, 5.2  5.5

Christensen Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. (2010) Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Montreal and  Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1.6, 14.2

Clark, D. et al. (2016) Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Review of Educational Research, Vol. 86, No. 1, 9.2

Clark, R. (1983) Reconsidering research on learning from media Review of Educational Research, Vol. 53. No. 4, 7.3, 8.1

Clarke-Okah, W. et al. (2014) The Commonwealth of Learning Review and Improvement Model for Higher Education Institutions Vancouver BC: Commonwealth of Learning, 13.1

Cleveland-Innes, M. (2013) ‘Teaching in an online community of inquiry: institutional and individual adjustment in the new higher education’, in Akyol, Z. & Garrison, R.D. (eds.)Educational communities of inquiry: theoretical framework, research and practice, (pp. 389-400).  Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 14.1. 

Collins, E. (2013) SJSU Plus Augmented Online Learning Environment Pilot Project Report San Jose CA: San Jose State University, 5.2

Colvin, K. et al. (2014) Learning an Introductory Physics MOOC: All Cohorts Learn Equally, Including On-Campus Class, IRRODL, Vol. 15, No. 4, 5.4

Conference Board of Canada (2014) Employability Skills Ottawa ON: Conference Board of Canada, 1.2

Connolly, B. (2018) How virtual reality is transforming learning at the University of Newcastle, CIO, 8 March, 9.3

Conole, G. (2014) The 7Cs of Learning Design – a new approach to rethinking design practice 9th International Conference on Networked Learning, Edinburgh, 12.4

Contact North (2019) Searchable Directory of More than 65 Open Universities Worldwide Sudbury ON:, 12.1

Coolidge, A. et al (2018) B.C. Open Textbook Accessibility Toolkit Victoria BC: BCcampus, 10.2

Couey, C. (2022) Distance Learning: Asynchronous vs. Synchronous LearningSoftware Advice, March 31, 7.4

Council of Ontario Universities (2012) Increased numbers of students heading to Ontario universities Toronto ON: COU, 1.6

Cross, J. (2022) What does too much screen time do to children’s brains? Health Matters, New York-Presbyterian, 4.2

Crowther, G. (1969) This is the Open University, London, UK, 23 July, 12.4


Dabbagh, N. (2007). The online learner: characteristics and pedagogical implicationsContemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 217- 226, 11.3

Daniel, J. (1998) Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media: Technology Strategies for Higher Education. London: Kogan Page, 12.1

Daniel, J. (2012) Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility Seoul: Korean National Open University, 5.5

DeRosa, R. and Robison, S. (2017) From OER to Open Pedagogy: Harnessing the Power of Open in Jhangiani, R S. and Biswas-Diener, R. (2017: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science London: Ubiquity Press, 12.4

Deterding, S. et al. (2011) Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts in PART 2-Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems Vancouver BC: CHI, 9.2

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & Education. New York, NY: Macmillan, 3.5

Dichev, C. and Dicheva, D. (2017) Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, Vol. 14, No. 9, 9.2

Dick, W., and Carey, L. (2004). The Systematic Design of Instruction Allyn & Bacon; 6 edition Allyn & Bacon, 4.3

Digital Learning Compass (2017) Distance Education Enrolment Report 2017 Wellesley MA, 1.7

Dingyloudi, F. and Strijbos, J. (2015) Examining value creation in a community of learning practice: Methodological reflections on story-telling and story-reading, Vol. 11, No.3, 4.6

Djafarova, N. et el. (2018) The Art of Serious Game Design Toronto ON: Chang School of Continuing Studies, Ryerson University, 9.2

Donaldson, R., Opper, J. and Sen, E. (2019) 2019 Florida Student Textbook and Course Materials Survey Tallahassee: Florida Virtual Campus, 12.3

Donovan, T. et al. (2018) Tracking Online and Distance Education in Canadian Universities and Colleges: 2018 Halifax NS: Canadian Digital Learning Research Association, 5.5, 11.1, 11.3, 12.1, 12.3

Downes, S. (2007) What connectivism is Half An Hour, February 3, 2.6, 2.7

Downes, S. (2012) E-learning Generations Half-an-hour, February 11, 7.2

Downes, S. (2014) The MOOC of One, Stephen’s Web, March 10, 2.6, 5.3

Downes, S. (2018) Online learning and MOOCs: Visions and PathwaysStephen’s Web, May 2, 5.1

Downs, L. (2020) New Regulations #3: Direct Assessment and Competency-Based Education WCET Frontiers, April 13, 4.5

Durbridge, N. (1983) Design implications of audio and video cassettes Milton Keynes: Open University Institute of Educational Technology, 7.4 (out of print)

Durbridge, N. (1984) Audio cassettes, in Bates, A. (ed.) The Role of Technology in Distance Education London: Routledge (re-published in 2014), 7.7, 8.3 


EAB (2015) Three Myths About Competency-Based Education Washington DC: Education Advisory Board, 4.5

Earle, L. (2003) Assessment as Learning Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press, 6.8

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (2005) Seven things you should know about… podcasting Boulder CO: EDUCAUSE, June, 8.3 

Elmqadden, N. (2019) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Education: Myth or Reality? International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, Vol. 14, No. 3, 9.3

Engle, W. (2104) UBC MOOC Pilot: Design and Delivery Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia, 5.2, 5.4, 10.4 

Entwistle, N. (2000) Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment: conceptual frameworks and educational contexts Leicester UK: TLRP Conference, 4.4

Entwistle, N. (2010) ‘Taking Stock: An Overview of Research Findings’ in Christensen Hughes, J. and Mighty, J. (eds.) Taking Stock: Research on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Montreal and  Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2.8

Entwistle, N. and Peterson, E. (2004) Conceptions of Learning and Knowledge in Higher Education: Relationships with Study Behaviour and Influences of Learning Environments International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 407-428, 3.4

Eradze M., Tammets K. (2017) Learning Analytics in MOOCs: EMMA Case. In: Lauro N., Amaturo E., Grassia M., Aragona B., Marino M. (eds) Data Science and Social Research: Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization Springer: Cham, 5.3

Evans, T., Haughey, M. and Murphy, D. (2008) International Handbook of Distance Education Bingley UK: Emerald Publishing, 11.2


Fain, P. (2019) Positive returns for direct assessment Inside Higher Education, August 27, 4.5

Falchikov, N. and Goldfinch, J. (2000) Student Peer Assessment in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Marks Review of Educational Research, Vol. 70, No. 3, 5.4

Falconer, I. et al. (2013) Overview and Analysis of Practices with Open Educational Resources in Adult Education in Europe Seville, Spain: European Commission Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, 12.2

Fallow, S. and Stevens, C. (2000) Integrating key skills in higher education Sterling VA/London: Routledge, 1.2

Fayed, I. and Cummings, J. (2021) Teaching in the Post Covid 19 Era Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 764 pp, 11.1, 11.2 

Feathers, T. (2019) Flawed Algorithms Are Grading Millions of Students’ EssaysMotherboard: Tech by Vice, 20 August, 9.4

Federal Trade Commission, USA (2019) FTC Imposes $5 billion Penalty and Sweeping New Privacy Restrictions on Facebook Washington DC: Federal Trade Commission, 10.9

Figlio, D., Rush, N. and Yin, L. (2010) Is it Live or is it Internet? Experimental Estimates of the Effects of Online Instruction on Student Learning Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 4.2, 13.3

Finnie, R. et al. (2018) Measuring Critical-thinking Skills of Postsecondary Students Toronto ON: HEQCO, 1.2

Firmin, R. et al. (2014) Case study: using MOOCs for conventional college coursework Distance Education, Vol. 35, No. 2, 5.4

Fischer, K. (1980) A Theory of Cognitive Development: The Control and Construction of Hierarchies of Skills, Psychological Review, Vol. 87, No. 6, 1.2

Fontana, D. (1981) Psychology for Teachers London: Macmillan/British Psychological Society, 2.4

Fox, K., Bryant, G., Lin, N., Srinivasan, N. (2020). Time for Class – COVID-19 Edition Part 1: A National Survey of Faculty during COVID-19. Tyton Partners and Every Learner Everywhere, July 8, 1.8, 11.2 

Frenette, M. (2017) Postsecondary Enrolment by Parental Income: Recent National and Provincial Trends Ottawa: Statistics Canada 1.1

Friedman, T. (2013) Revolution Hits the Universities New York Times, January 26, 5.2, Scenario F

Freire, P. (2004). Pedagogy of Indignation. Boulder CO: Paradigm, 3.7

Fukuyama, F. (2011) The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux, 3.2

Fukuyama, F. (2014) Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux, 3.2


Gallagher, C. (2019) Integrative Learning for a Divided World Baltimore ML: John Hopkins Press, 12.5

Gallup, A. et al. (2019) Contagious yawning in virtual reality is affected by actual, but not simulated, social presence Nature: Scientific Reports, 22 January, 9.3

Gardner, H. (1983) Frame of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences New York: Basic Books, 10.1

Gardner, H. (2006) Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons and Theory in Practice New York: Basic Books, 10.1

Garrett, R. and Lurie, H. (2016) Deconstructing CBE: An Assessment of Institutional Activity, Goals and Challenges in Higher Education Boston MA: Ellucian/Eduventures, 4.5

Garrison, R., Anderson, A. and Archer, W. (2000) Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education The Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, 4.4, 10.6

Garrison, D. R. & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 19, No. 3, 13.10

Gatuguta-Gitau, S. (2017) MOOCs: Employers View, a brief snapshot QS, London, UK, 5.3

Gibson, J.J.  (1979) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 8.1

Gilbert, J. (2005) Catching the Knowledge Wave: the Knowledge Society and the Future of Education Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 2.7

Gijselaers, W., (1995) ‘Perspectives on problem-based learning’ in Gijselaers, W, Tempelaar, D, Keizer, P, Blommaert, J, Bernard, E & Kapser, H (eds) Educational Innovation in Economics and Business Administration: The Case of Problem-Based Learning. Dordrecht, Kluwer, 3.5

Golding, W. (1954) The Lord of the Flies London: Faber and Faber, 9.1

Gordon, A. (2018) ‘Micromasters surge as MOOCs go from education to qualification‘, Forbes, 13 February, 5.3

Green, K. (2013) Mission, money and MOOCs Association of Governing Boards Trusteeship, No. 1, Volume 21, 5.3

Gross-Loh, C. (2016) Should colleges really eliminate the college lecture? The Atlantic, 14 July, 3.3 

Grundin, H. 1981) Open University Broadcasting Times and their Impact on Students’ Viewing/Listening Milton Keynes: The Open University Institute of Educational Technology (out of print), 7.4

Guhlin, M. (2011) Education Experiment Ends, Around the Corner –, September 22, 7.3

Gunawardena, C., Lowe, C. & Carabajal, K. (2000). Evaluating Online Learning: models and methods. In Willis, D. et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2000 (pp. 1677-1684). Chesapeake, VA: AACE, 13.11


Hamari, J., et al. (2016) Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 54, 9.2

Halverson, L. R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., & Drysdale, J. S. (2012). ‘An analysis of high impact scholarship and publication trends in blended learning‘ Distance Education, Vol. 33, No. 3, 11.2

Hampson, K. (2013) The next chapter for digital instructional media: content as a competitive difference Vancouver BC: COHERE 2013 conference, 12.2

Hampson, K. (2015) Masterclass & MOOCs: Notes on the Role of Production Value in Online Learning The Synapse, July 31, 13.6

Harasim, L. (2017) Learning Theory and Online Technologies 2nd edition New York/London: Taylor and Francis, 2.2, 3.4, 4.4, 5.4, 11.2, 13.10   

Haynie, D. (2014). State Department hosts ‘MOOC Camp’ for online learners US News, January 20, 5.4

Hegarty, B. (2015) Attributes of open pedagogy: a model for using open educational resources Educational Technology, July-August, 12.4

Hendry, J. (2018) Govts dump NAPLAN robo marking plans itnews, 30 January, 9.4

Herreid, C. F. (2007). Start with a story: The case study method of teaching college science. Arlington VA: NSTA Press, 3.5

Heslop, J. (2016) Education Pathways for High School Graduates and Non-Graduates Victoria BC: Student Transitions Project, Government of British Columbia, 1.6

Hill, P. (2012) Four Barriers that MOOCs Must Overcome to Build a Sustainable Model e-Literate, July 24, 5.5

Hill, P. (2013) Some validation of MOOC student patterns graphic, e-Literate, August 30, 5.4

Hill, P. (2015) How Much Do College Students Actually Pay For Textbooks? e-Literate, March 25, 12.3

Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R’s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 25, No. 1, 12.2

Hiltz, R. and Turoff, M. (1978) The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, 4.4  7.2, 11.2

Ho, A. et al. (2014) HarvardX and MITx: The First Year of Open Online Courses Fall 2012-Summer 2013 (HarvardX and MITx Working Paper No. 1), January 21, 5.4

Hofer, B. and Pintrich, P. (1997) ‘The development of epistemological theories: beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning’ Review of Educational Research Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 88-140, 2.2

Hollands, F. and Tirthali, D. (2014) MOOCs: Expectations and Realities New York: Columbia University Teachers’ College, 5.4

Holmberg, B. (1989) Theory and Practice of Distance Education New York: Routledge, 11.2

Hülsmann, T. (2000) The Costs of Open Learning: A Handbook Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssytem der Universität Oldenburg, 10.4 

Hülsmann, T. (2003) Costs without camouflage: a cost analysis of Oldenburg University’s  two graduate certificate programs offered  as part of the online Master of Distance Education (MDE): a case study, in Bernath, U. and Rubin, E., (eds.) Reflections on Teaching in an Online Program: A Case Study Oldenburg, Germany: Bibliothecks-und Informationssystem der Carl von Ossietsky Universität Oldenburg, 5.4, 10.4 

Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M., & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research, in Proceedings of the Challenges in Game AI Workshop, San Jose CA: Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 9.2


Illich, I. (1971) Deschooling SocietyNew York: Harper and Row, 3.7

International Telecommunications Union (2018) UN Broadband Commission sets global broadband targets to bring online the world’s 3.8 billion not connected to the Internet Davos: United Nations Broadband Commission, 10.2

Irby, D. (1994) Three exemplary models of case-based teaching Academic Medicine, Vol. 69, No. 12, 3.5


Jamison, D. and Klees, S. (1973) The Cost of Instructional Radio and Television for Developing Countries Stanford CA: Stanford University Institute for Communication Research, 7.2

Jaschik, S. (2013) MOOC Mess, Inside Higher Education, February 4, 5.4

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