Brave Spaces

A space where participants feel comfortable learning, sharing, and growing, that is inclusive to all. Participants honor each other’s experiences and opinions with respect to achieve a place of
understanding, acknowledging that there may be a certain level of discomfort when discussing uncomfortable comments.


the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people.


the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically

Complex systems

Complex systems have unknown unknowns, so you don’t know the framework or the variables. The cause & effect relationships aren’t repeated, and the system is only coherent in retrospect.



Complicated systems

Complicated systems have known unknowns, like a large system of equations that can be only solved with a matrix. In this case, the cause & effect relationships are separated by space & time. You can utilize systems thinking to solve these systems.

comprehensive community plan (CCP)

a detailed plan created by and for a First Nations community with the purpose of creating community guidelines on (Government of Canada, 2016)


Decolonization is the process of deconstructing the superiority associated with colonial ideologies and western methods of acquiring knowledge to help create space for Indigenization.



Relating to what can directly be observed


a leader or senior figure in a tribe or other group


Originating in or based on observation or experience


an effort to understand someone or something

First Nations

First Nations is a term used to describe Indigenous peoples in Canada (sometimes referred to as Aboriginal peoples) who are not Métis or Inuit

hot button moment
hot button moments

Instances where people's feelings rise (sometimes unexpectedly) to a point that threatens teaching and learning.


a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy


The process of incorporating Indigenous “ways of knowing”, ways of learning, technology, guiding principles and knowledge systems into our schools, businesses, governments and institutions.


bring (something) under the control, dominance, or influence of the people native to an area.

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples are distinct social and cultural groups that share collective ancestral ties to the lands and natural resources where they live, occupy or from which they have been displaced


Microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial, gender, sexual orientation, and religious slights and insults to the target person or group


relating to or characterized by the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries


Postcolonialism refers to the study of a region or culture after colonization has occurred


Relating to what should or ought to happen


the action of making one view or belief compatible with another

Safe Space

A space that poses to threat of danger, risk, or harm to those within the space.


Relating to systems that are well defined, and thus, are easily solvable.

Simple systems

Simple systems have known knowns (AKA all the variables are known), so they are solvable. For example, the equation of a line with a known x or y value is solvable. The cause and effects in this system are clear.

System thinking


Systems thinking

An approach to analyzing a problem which involves looking at he relationships between the system's constituent parts.


United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

United Nations

The UN is an international organization founded in 1945. Currently made up of 193 Member States. It is the one place on Earth where all the world’s nations can gather together, discuss common problems, and find shared solutions that benefit all of humanity

Ways of Knowing

A tool used to acquire knowledge.


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To the extent possible under law, Pamela Wolf, Ben Harris, Nika Martinussen has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to Glossary, except where otherwise noted.

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