Chapter 26 Galaxies

26.6 For Further Exploration

For Further Exploration


Andrews, B. “What Are Galaxies Trying to Tell Us?” Astronomy (February 2011): 24. Introduction to our understanding of the shapes and evolution of different types of galaxies.

Bothun, G. “Beyond the Hubble Sequence.” Sky & Telescope (May 2000): 36. History and updating of Hubble’s classification scheme.

Christianson, G. “Mastering the Universe.” Astronomy (February 1999): 60. Brief introduction to Hubble’s life and work.

Dalcanton, J. “The Overlooked Galaxies.” Sky & Telescope (April 1998): 28. On low-brightness galaxies, which have been easy to miss.

Freedman, W. “The Expansion Rate and Size of the Universe.” Scientific American (November 1992): 76.

Hodge, P. “The Extragalactic Distance Scale: Agreement at Last?” Sky & Telescope (October 1993): 16.

Jones, B. “The Legacy of Edwin Hubble.” Astronomy (December 1989): 38.

Kaufmann, G. and van den Bosch, F. “The Life Cycle of Galaxies.” Scientific American (June 2002): 46. On galaxy evolution and how it leads to the different types of galaxies.

Martin, P. and Friedli, D. “At the Hearts of Barred Galaxies.” Sky & Telescope (March 1999): 32. On barred spirals.

Osterbrock, D. “Edwin Hubble and the Expanding Universe.” Scientific American (July 1993): 84.

Russell, D. “Island Universes from Wright to Hubble.” Sky & Telescope (January 1999) 56. A history of our discovery of galaxies.

Smith, R. “The Great Debate Revisited.” Sky & Telescope (January 1983): 28. On the Shapley-Curtis debate concerning the extent of the Milky Way and the existence of other galaxies.


ABC’s of Distance: A concise summary by astronomer Ned Wright of all the different methods we use to get distances in astronomy.  More detail than used in this book, but an excellent site.  This was also recommended in the chapter on Celestial Distances.

Cosmic Times 1929: . NASA project explaining Hubble’s work and surrounding discoveries as if you were reading newspaper articles.

Edwin Hubble: The Man Behind the Name: Concise biography from the people at the Hubble Space Telescope.

Edwin Hubble: An article on the life and work of Hubble by his student and successor, Allan Sandage from the journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada.  A bit technical in places, but giving a real picture of the man and the science.

NASA Science: Introduction to Galaxies: A brief overview with links to other pages, and recent Hubble Space Telescope discoveries.

National Optical Astronomy Observatories Gallery of Galaxies: A collection of images and information about galaxies and galaxy groups of different types. Another impressive archive can be found at the European Southern Observatory site:

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Introduction to Galaxies: Another brief overview.

Universe Expansion: The background material here provides a nice chronology of how we discovered and measured the expansion of the universe.


Edwin Hubble (Hubblecast Episode 89): (5:59).


Hubble’s Views of the Deep Universe: . A 2015 public talk by Brandon Lawton of the Space Telescope Science Institute about galaxies and beyond (1:26:20).


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Douglas College Astronomy 1105 by Douglas College Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open Stax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.