Chapter 2: Patient Assessment

2.10 Head-to-Toe Assessment: Genitourinary Assessment

Critical Thinking Exercises: Questions, Answers, and Sources / References

Critical thinking questions are in bold type, and the answers are italicized. Additional resources or references are provided below.

  1. Identify two strategies to prevent urinary tract infection in the person with an indwelling urethral catheter.
  • Increasing fluid intake is proven to reduce risk of UTI, possibly by diluting urine and flushing out bacteria.
  • Doing pericare with soap and water.
  • Ensuring urine drainage bag is lower than the bladder prevents backflow of urine from the bag to the bladder.
  • Removing the catheter as soon as possible eliminates risk.
  • Using good hand hygiene to reduce introduction of organisms carried by healthcare provider’s hands to the patient.
  • Maintaining a closed system: bacteria can enter an open system causing UTI.
  • Using individualized containers when emptying the catheter to prevent risk of cross contamination.


Redd, L. (2012, February 11). Preventing urinary tract infections in patients with indwelling catheters. American Nurse Today, 7(2).


2. A patient with an ileal conduit asks why their urine is cloudy. Explain.


With an ileal conduit a piece of bowel is formed into a small reservoir to bridge (conduit) from the ureters to the outside of the body. The piece of bowel naturally produces bacteria and mucous. Both of these contribute to the cloudy nature of urine coming from an ileal conduit.



Canadian Cancer Society. (2019). Urinary diversion.


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