Chapter 9: Analysis Of Survey Data

# Key Takeaways

## Key Takeaways

• Non-response bias occurs when only those who have strong opinions about a study topic return the survey, consequently, the findings do not represent how things really are or, at the very least, are limited in the claims that can be made about patterns found in the data.
• Univariate analysis is the most basic form of analysis that quantitative researchers conduct. It includes frequency distributions and measures of central tendency.
• Measures of central tendency tell us what the most common, or average response, is to a question, and can be taken for any level variable: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. There are three kinds of measures of central tendency: modes, medians, and means.
• Mode refers to the most common response given to a question. Modes are most appropriate for nominal level variables.
• Median is the appropriate measure of central tendency for ordinal-level variables.
• Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency for interval- and ratio-level variables. To obtain a mean, one must add the value of all responses on a given variable and then divide that number by the total number of responses.
• Bivariate analysis allows us to assess co-variation among two variables. This means we can identify changes in one variable and then divide them together with changes in another.
• Covariation means we can find out whether changes in one variable occur together with changes in another.
• Contingency tables are used to demonstrate how variation on one variable may be contingent on variation on the other.