Chapter 5 – Yukon Indigenous Peoples and Governance
The Umbrella Final Agreement Between the Government of Canada, the Council for Yukon Indians and the Government of the Yukon is the primary Yukon land claim document (1993). The Council of Yukon First Nations website is an excellent resource for all things Yukon Self-Government. To view digital copies of the Umbrella Final Agreement, First Nations’ Final Agreements, Self-Government Agreements, and Self-Government Implementation Plans see https://cyfn.ca/agreements/.To assist in understanding the Yukon land claim see, Understanding the Yukon Umbrella Final Agreement: A Land Claim Settlement Information Package (Council of Yukon First Nations and Yukon Government, 1997).
For an ethnographic case study of the relationship between the Canadian government and First Nation governments, see Hunters and Bureaucrats: Power, Knowledge, and Aboriginal-State Relations in the Southwest Yukon by Paul Nadasdy (University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver 2003). Paul Nadasdy’s, Sovereignty’s Entailments: First Nation State Formation in the Yukon, is an ethnographic study of Kluane First Nation people, their state formation practices and sovereignty politics (2017). Lianne Charlie critiques the Yukon Umbrella Final Agreement and discusses the politics of recognition, self-determination, identity, and citizenship through the use of collage theory and practice in her book chapter Piecing Together Modern Treaty Politics in the Yukon (2020). The Yukon Archives has put out a digital Yukon Land Claims Bibliography, which includes publications up to 2011 (Yukon Government, 2011d). For an analysis of comprehensive land claim agreement negotiations in Canada see Christopher Alcantara’s, Negotiating the Deal: Comprehensive Land Claims Agreements in Canada (2013). For a discussion of issues pertaining to joint management and the Umbrella Final Agreement see Norm Eastons,” It’s Hard Enough to Control Yourself; It’s Ridiculous to Think You Can Control Animals”: Competing Views on “The Bush” in Contemporary Yukon (The Northern Review, 2008). For an alternative and thought-provoking discussion on land claims and reconciliation in Canada see Arthur Manuel and Grand Chief Ronald Derrickson’s book The Reconciliation Manifesto: Recovering the Land Rebuilding the Economy (2017).
The most comprehensive international document on the rights of Indigenous peoples around the world is the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2007. Canada is now a signatory of the declaration. Originally, Canada voted against the declaration. The document “establishes a framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world and it elaborates on existing human rights standards and fundamental freedoms as they apply to the specific situation of indigenous peoples” (2007).