# Preface

This book aims to help students develop a fundamental understanding of classical thermodynamics and its engineering applications. It features concise explanations of key concepts, step-by-step engineering examples, and interactive practice problems at the end of each section.

The book consists of six chapters. It is suitable for a one-term, introductory engineering thermodynamics course at the undergraduate level. It may also be used as self-learning materials or a supplement to other thermodynamics books.

**Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Definitions
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This chapter introduces basic concepts and definitions in thermodynamics, such as open and closed systems; extensive and intensive properties; equilibrium states, quasi-equilibrium processes, and cycles. It lays a foundation for students to understand the key concepts in the subsequent chapters.

**Chapter 2: Thermodynamic Properties of a Pure Substance**

This chapter introduces thermodynamic properties, phase diagrams, and thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Students will learn how to determine thermodynamic properties of pure substances by using thermodynamic tables, and how to illustrate states and processes in phase diagrams. This chapter prepares students with essential skills for performing comprehensive analyses of various thermodynamic processes and cycles.

**Chapter 3: Ideal and Real Gases
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This chapter explains the concepts of “ideal” gas, ideal gas law, real gas, and compressibility factor. Students will learn the difference between an “ideal” and real gases, and at what conditions the ideal gas model may be used as an approximation for evaluating properties, such as pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas.

**Chapter 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems**

This chapter explains the concepts of heat, work, and the first law of thermodynamics for closed systems. Through examples, students will learn how to apply the first law of thermodynamics to engineering problems involving closed systems.

**Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume**

This chapter extends the concept of energy conservation to open systems with a focus on steady-state, steady flows (SSSF). Students will learn how to use the first law of thermodynamics to analyze processes in typical SSSF devices, such as pipes, turbines, compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, and mixing chambers.

**Chapter 6: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
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This chapter introduces the concepts of reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycles, entropy and entropy generation, and the second law of thermodynamics. Students will learn the applications of the second law in both closed and open systems.