Chapter 2: Introduction to Major Perspectives

Multiple Choice


  1. The belief that complex behaviours can be understood as the sum of several simpler one’s is called:
    a. reductionism
    b. functionalism
    c. introspection
    d. animism
  2. Wundt’s primary method of research was:
    a. experimentation
    b. autoethnography
    c. introspection
    d. lesioning
  3. Jung stated that humans possess both a ________ unconscious and a ________
    a. shadow/manifest
    b. personal/collective
    c. introvert/extravert
    d. phenomenal/latent
  4. Remembering that the capital of Canada is Ottawa requires:
    a. sensory memory
    b. semantic memory
    c. episodic memory
    d. procedural memory
  5. Which of the following psychologists was NOT a behaviourist?
    a. Watson
    b. Thorndike
    c. Skinner
    d. Maslow
  6. Positive reinforcement involves ________ something to increase a response whereas
    negative reinforcement involves ________ something.
    a. repeating/increasing
    b. adding/removing
    c. removing/adding
    d. increasing/repeating
  7. Two kinds of learning studied by behaviourists are:
    a. classical conditioning and operant conditioning
    b. manifest learning and latent learning
    c. conscious learning and unconscious learning
    d. operant conditioning and instrumental conditioning
  8. Which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming?
    a. expectation fulfillment
    b. activation-synthesis
    c. threat-simulation
    d. elucidatory consciousness
  9. The brain has four lobes: occipital, frontal ________ and ________.
    a. sympathetic, parasympathetic
    b. autonomic, somatic
    c. temporal, parietal
    d. visual, auditory
  10. A psychologist who practices Gestalt Therapy would most likely be a(n):
    a. humanist
    b. behaviourist
    c. evolutionist
    d. cognitivist
  11. A psychologist primarily interested in mental processes such as memory and perception
    would most likely be a(n):
    a. humanist
    b. behaviourist
    c. evolutionist
    d. cognitivist
  12. Which of the following topics would be of least interest to a biological psychologist?
    a. hunger
    b. thirst
    c. free will
    d. sleep
  13. William James worked during the:
    a. late 20th century
    b. late 19th century
    c. middle ages
    d. the 1700s
  14. Freud argued that dreams have both ________ content and ________ content.
    a. Freudian, Jungian
    b. conditioned, unconditioned
    c. latent, manifest
    d. somatic, autonomic
  15. In Pavlov’s work dogs salivated naturally in response to being given meat powder.
    In this situation, salivation is the ________ while the meat powder is the ________.
    a. UCR, UCS
    b. UCS, UCR
    c. CS, CR
    d. CR, CS
  16. Which of the following was a humanistic psychologist?
    a. Freud
    b. Watson
    c. Wernicke
    d. Rogers
  17. What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
    a. somatic, autonomic
    b. reflexive, responsive
    c. sympathetic, parasympathetic
    d. frontal, occipital
  18. MBTI stands for:
    a. Manifold Barometric Temperature Indicator
    b. Multiple Behavioural Theories Instrument
    c. Myers Briggs Type Indicator
    d. Maslow Bosun Trend Indicator
  19. Which lobe of the brain is also known as the auditory cortex?
    a. frontal
    b. temporal
    c. occipital
    d. parietal
  20. Which of the following is NOT associated with Freud?
    a. id
    b. ego
    c. shadow
    d. super-ego
  21. In Seligman’s ABCDE model of learned optimism, B stands for:
    a. belief
    b. behaviour
    c. brain
    d. blessing
  22.  ________ needs were at the bottom of Maslow’s pyramid/hierarchy.
    a. safety
    b. self actualization
    c. esteem
    d. physiological
  23. The idea that human behaviour may be the product of natural selection is central to:
    a. humanistic psychology
    b. evolutionary psychology
    c. cognitive psychology
    d. behavioural psychology
  24. The movement known as radical behaviourism is most closely associated with:
    a. Watson
    b. Thorndike
    c. Pavlov
    d. Skinner
  25. Intrinsic motivation refers to:
    a. enjoying a task for its own sake
    b. being motivated by money and/or other rewards
    c. enjoying a task because it meets physical needs
    d. motivation that can only be experienced indoors
  26. Remembering what you ate for supper yesterday requires:
    a. sensory memory
    b. episodic memory
    c. procedural memory
    d. semantic memory
  27. According to Freud the ________ content of a dream relates to the person’s unconscious wishes.
    a. shadow
    b. lateral
    c. spreading
    d. latent
  28. Humanistic psychology emerged during which decade?
    a. 1930s
    b. 1950s
    c. 1970s
    d. 1990s
  29. In Pavlov’s work, when dogs were trained to salivate to the sound of a bell that sound was the:
    a. UCS
    b. UCR
    c. CS
    d. CR
  30. Another term for thinking about thinking is:
    a. metacognition
    b. perception
    c. mediation
    d. self-regulation


  1. a
  2. c
  3. b
  4. b
  5. d
  6. b
  7. a
  8. d
  9. c
  10. a
  11. d
  12. c
  13. b
  14. c
  15. a
  16. d
  17. c
  18. c
  19. b
  20. c
  21. a
  22. d
  23. b
  24. d
  25. a
  26. b
  27. d
  28. b
  29. c
  30. a


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