Chapter 12: Personality

Multiple Choice Questions


  1. Phrenologists tried to find out about personality by:
    a. reading a person’s horoscope
    b. feeling a person’s skull
    c. looking at a person’s hands
    d. asking people questions
  2. A limitation of selective breeding studies is that they cannot:
    a. tell us anything about the role of genes
    b. be used to study human beings
    c. provide information relevant to the nature/nurture debate
    d. tell us anything about the role of the environment
  3. Which neo-Freudian challenged his ideas about penis envy?
    a. Adler
    b. Fromm
    c. Jung
    d. Horney
  4. Someone who feels as though they are not living up to expectations would be
    described by Adler as having:
    a. low self-realization
    b. an Adlerian complex
    c. an inferiority complex
    d. low actualization
  5. According to Freud, the mind’s three components are:
    a. ego, id, superego
    b. unconscious, moral, immoral
    c. oral, anal, phallic
    d. primary, secondary, tertiary
  6. The idea that you can assess someone’s personality by studying their face is called:
    a. phrenology
    b. physiology
    c. somatology
    d. physiognomy
  7. The ________ complex is to girls as the ________ complex is to boys.
    a. Electra, Oedipus
    b. Oedipus, Electra
    c. oral, phallic
    d. phallic, oral
  8. The discovery that the heritability of the Big Five personality traits is around 40% – 50% suggests that:
    a. the environment plays no role in personality
    b. genes play no role in personality
    c. the environment plays an important role in personality
    d. the Big Five traits account for about half of our personality
  9. Humanistic psychologists embraced the idea of:
    a. repression
    b. free will
    c. unconscious drives
    d. the id
  10. According to Eysenck, extraverts seek to ________ their arousal while introverts seek to ________ their arousal.
    a. decrease, increase
    b. hide, reveal
    c. increase, decrease
    d. reveal, hide
  11. Allport believed that traits could be organized into three levels:
    a. primary, secondary, tertiary
    b. cognitive, emotional, physiological
    c. id, ego, superego
    d. cardinal, central, secondary
  12. The MMPI is used to measure:
    a. unconscious drives
    b. the Big Five traits
    c. personality and psychological disorders
    d. leadership potential
  13. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five traits?
    a. sense of humour
    b. openness to experience
    c. conscientiousness
    d. extraversion
  14. Freud founded the ________ approach to understanding human behaviour.
    a. palliative
    b. psychodynamic
    c. patronymic
    d. psychedelic
  15. The influence of parents on the personality of their children is:
    a. non-existent
    b. weakest in early childhood
    c. strongest in early childhood
    d. consistent across the lifespan
  16. What is special about “knockout” mice?
    a. they are very attractive
    b. their DNA has been modified
    c. they are easy to knock out
    d. they are unusually aggressive
  17. The aim of behavioural genetics is to learn about:
    a. the extent to which geneticists can modify people’s behaviour
    b. the possibility of eradicating behavioural problems in children
    c. the genetic and environmental influences on human behaviour
    d. the ability of animals to learn language
  18. Monozygotic is to ________ twins as dizygotic is to ________ twins.
    a. male, female,
    b. female, male
    c. fraternal, identical
    d. identical, fraternal
  19. Which of the following characteristics describe someone who, according to Maslow, is self-actualized?
    a. creativity
    b. confidence
    c. spontaneity
    d. all of the above
  20. According to Freud, children pass through 4 stages of psychosexual development.
    Which of the following shows the stages in the correct developmental order?
    a. oral, anal, phallic, latency
    b. latency, oral, anal, phallic
    c. phallic, anal, oral, latency
    d. oral, phallic, latency, anal
  21. Projective tests claim to reveal information about:
    a. career aptitude
    b. intellectual attainment
    c. unconscious processes
    d. parenting style
  22. Traits are defined as:
    a. physical characteristics that distinguish us from other people
    b. relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behaviour across many situations
    c. unconscious tendencies to act in different ways according to the situation
    d. permanent personality tendencies that determine our behaviour in any situation
  23. Sheldon’s theory that people with different body types have different personalities has been:
    a. supported by research
    b. discredited
    c. shown to be accurate for thin people but not overweight people
    d. shown to be accurate for women but not for men
  24. Which of the following is not a defence mechanism?
    a. projection
    b. regression
    c. ingratiation
    d. sublimation
  25. Rohan is self-disciplined, focused on achievement and keen to do his duty. He would be
    expected to score highly on:
    a. neuroticism
    b. agreeableness
    c. extraversion
    d. conscientiousness
  26. The Barnum effect helps to explain people’s belief in:
    a. fortune-telling
    b. astrology
    c. horoscopes
    d. all the above
  27. ________ are the basic biological units that transmit characteristics from one generation to the next:
    a. genes
    b. neurons
    c. glia
    d. instincts
  28. Which of the following would NOT be useful to a behavioural geneticist?
    a. family studies
    b. case studies
    c. adoption studies
    d. twin studies
  29. According to Freud, the id is to the ________ principle as the ego is to the ________ principle.
    a. aggressive, sexual
    b. sexual, aggressive
    c. pleasure, reality
    d. reality, pleasure
  30. Lana is friendly, always willing to help others and compassionate. We would expect Lana to score highly on:
    a. extraversion
    b. agreeableness
    c. neuroticism
    d. openness to experience


  1. b
  2. b
  3. d
  4. c
  5. a
  6. d
  7. a
  8. c
  9. b
  10. c
  11. d
  12. c
  13. a
  14. b
  15. c
  16. b
  17. c
  18. d
  19. d
  20. a
  21. c
  22. b
  23. b
  24. c
  25. d
  26. d
  27. a
  28. b
  29. c
  30. b


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