Chapter 9: Remembering and Judging

Multiple Choice

Questions

  1.  ________ memory is to hearing as ________ memory is to seeing.
    a. echoic, eidetic
    b. eidetic, echoic,
    c. working, short-term
    d. short-term, working
  2. The cognitive school of psychology found it helpful to liken the brain to a(n):
    a. cash machine
    b. computer
    c. orchestra
    d. calculator
  3. A person who has just eaten supper completes the word fragment _ o_k as fork (rather
    than as book or look etc). This is an example of:
    a. conditioning
    b. recognition
    c. priming
    d. relearning
  4. Which of the following brain areas have been shown to be important for memory?
    a. cerebellum
    b. amygdala
    c. hippocampus
    d. all of the above
  5. Puni isn’t sure whether she read something in a magazine or in her psychology text book.
    Puni has a problem with:
    a. media literacy
    b. the misinformation effect
    c. source monitoring
    d. salience
  6. Anterograde amnesia is typically associated with damage to the:
    a. amygdala
    b. retina
    c. cerebellum
    d. hippocampus
  7. Which part of working memory controls how attention is directed?
    a. the central executive
    b. the mother board
    c. the mnemonic processor
    d. the director
  8.  ________ interference works backwards, and ________ interference works forwards.
    a. primary, recency
    b. recency, primacy
    c. proactive, retroactive
    d. retroactive, proactive
  9. When asked to come up with the name of a bird, people are much more likely to say
    “robin” than they are to say “ostrich”. This is because:
    a. robin is a shorter word
    b. robin begins with the letter “r”
    c. robins are prototypical
    d. robins are smaller
  10. The tendency to think about and experience events according to “what might have
    been” is known as:
    a. anterograde amnesia
    b. counterfactual thinking
    c. salience
    d. heuristic processing
  11. Damage to the cerebellum is likely to interfere with:
    a. auditory processing
    b. explicit memory
    c. implicit memory
    d. emotional memories
  12. Research has shown that there is _________________ between the accuracy of a
    person’s memory and their confidence in the accuracy of that memory.
    a. virtually no correlation
    b. a strong positive correlation
    c. a strong negative correlation
    d. a curvilinear relationship
  13. The word fragment test is used to test a person’s ________ memory.
    a. extrinsic
    b. instrinsic
    c. explicit
    d. implicit
  14. After reading an article about a case of cheating on campus, students are likely to over-
    estimate the incidence of cheating on campus. This is an example of:
    a. iconic memory salience
    b. the availability heuristic
    c. counterfactual thinking
    d. functional fixedness
  15. In stage models of memory, information moves from:
    a. sensory to short-term to long-term memory
    b. sensory to long-term to working memory
    c. short-term to long-term to explicit memory
    d. sensory to eidetic to iconic memory
  16. The spacing effect suggests that when you study for a test you should:
    a. wait until the last minute then find a quiet place to study
    b. learn different material in different places
    c. spread your study time over a number of sessions
    d. always study in a spacious area
  17. Classical conditioning effects are an example of:
    a. eidetic memory
    b. primary memory
    c. retroactive interference
    d. implicit memory
  18. Magnus was locked in a room. The only way to escape was to force open a window
    and climb out. Magnus remained locked in the room because he never thought to use
    his keys to force the window. Magnus’ problem was:
    a. amnesia
    b. functional fixedness
    c. interference
    d. misinformation
  19. In the context of memory, LTP stands for:
    a. limited transfer potential
    b. lateral temporal parietal
    c. latent timing probability
    d. long term potentiation
  20. After a stroke, 22-year-old Malik can no longer remember his childhood friends or the vacations he took with his family. Malik is suffering from:
    a. retrograde amnesia
    b. anterograde amnesia
    c. functional fixedness
    d. dyslexia
  21. Our tendency to focus on information that is consistent with our beliefs and to ignore
    contradictory information is called:
    a. contradiction avoidance
    b. confirmation bias
    c. counterfactual thinking
    d. functional fixedness
  22. ________ information is lost from sensory memory, and ________ information is lost from
    short-term memory.
    a. unpleasant, pleasant
    b. pleasant, unpleasant
    c. unattended, unrehearsed
    d. unrehearsed, unattended
  23. Recall involves ________ step(s), and recognition involves ________ step(s).
    a. one, one
    b. one, two
    c. two, two
    d. two, one
  24. Working memory is best thought of as:
    a. an alternative to long term memory
    b. a set of memory procedures
    c. a type of procedural memory
    d. an adjunct to sensory memory
  25. Shandra is convinced that her neighbour, Joe, is cruel to his dog. She notices every time
    Joe shouts at the dog or jerks its lead but she doesn’t seem to notice the times when Joe
    plays with the dog or gives it treats. This is an example of:
    a. misinformation
    b. anterograde amnesia
    c. proactive interference
    d. confirmation bias
  26. Ivy remembers watching the solar eclipse in amazing detail. She is certain she can
    remember exactly what she was wearing, who she was with, what music was playing on
    a nearby radio and even the breed of dog which ran past her just before the eclipse. This
    is an example of a(n):
    a. flashbulb memory
    b. eidetic image
    c. procedural memory
    d. semantic memory
  27. Research suggests that if you are sad when you study for a test you are likely
    to be better at remembering the material:
    a. when you are happy
    b. when you are drunk
    c. when you are sad
    d. when you are angry
  28. ________ memory is to first-hand experience as ________ memory is to knowledge
    about the world.
    a. semantic, episodic
    b. episodic, semantic
    c. implicit, explicit
    d. explicit, implicit
  29. Heuristics are:
    a. the same as mnemonics
    b. a type of hormone
    c. information processing strategies
    d. none of the above
  30. When she studies for a Psych exam, Melodee always tries to think of ways in which the
    information she is trying to learn relates to her own life. She is hoping to benefit from:
    a. the self-reference effect
    b. the spacing effect
    c. overlearning
    d. enhanced interference

Answers

  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d
  5. c
  6. d
  7. a
  8. d
  9. c
  10. b
  11. c
  12. a
  13. d
  14. b
  15. a
  16. c
  17. d
  18. b
  19. d
  20. a
  21. b
  22. c
  23. d
  24. b
  25. d
  26. a
  27. c
  28. b
  29. c
  30. a

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