Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology

Multiple Choice


  1. The word “psychology’ comes from:
    a. Latin
    b. Spanish
    c. Greek
    d. Italian
  2. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of:
    a. people and things
    b. emotions and beliefs
    c. perception and religion
    d. mind and behaviour
  3. The scientific approach is more useful at answering
    questions about ______ than questions about ______.
    a. facts, values
    b. ideas, emotions
    c. values, facts
    d. emotions, facts
  4. According to the text, the lower level of explanation corresponds to
    ______ processes.
    a. social
    b. cultural
    c. biological
    d. interpersonal
  5. A psychologist exploring the impact of a new drug on activity in the brain is working on the ______ level of
    a. lower
    b. middle
    c. upper
    d. all of the above
  6. A psychologist studying what makes people laugh in different countries around the world is working on the ______ level of explanation.
    a. lower
    b. middle
    c. higher
    d. none of the above
  7. Different people react differently to the same situation. This is referred to as:
    a. multiple determinants
    b. nativism
    c. the Simpson effect
    d. individual differences
  8.  ______ is to nature as ______ is to nurture.
    a. environment, genes
    b. conscious, unconscious
    c. inaccuracy, accuracy
    d. biology, experience
  9. The term “tabula rasa” highlights the importance of ______ in shaping behaviour.
    a. genes
    b. experience
    c. nature
    d. predestination
  10. The Greek philosopher ______ believed that knowledge is acquired through experience and learning.
    a. Archimedes
    b. Rousseau
    c. Plato
    d. Aristotle
  11.  ______ is to nature as ______ is to nurture.
    a. Plato, Aristotle
    b. Aristotle, Plato
    c. Pliny, Archimedes
    d. Stavros, Pliny
  12.  ______ is the belief that the mind is fundamentally different from the body.
    a. mindism
    b. dualism
    c. centralism
    d. specialism
  13. The school of psychology whose goal was to identify the basic elements of experience was called:
    a. experientialism
    b. dualism
    c. functionalism
    d. structuralism
  14. Which of the following was most closely associated with the structuralist school of psychology?
    a. Titchener
    b. James
    c. Descartes
    d. Watson
  15. Darwin’s theory of ______ argued that physiological characteristics evolve because they are useful to the
    a. extreme usefulness
    b. natural endowment
    c. natural selection
    d. natural wellbeing
  16. ______ was to structuralism as ______ was to functionalism.
    a. Wundt, Titchener
    b. Wundt, James
    c. James, Titchener
    d. Milner, Thompson
  17. Freud championed ______ psychology.
    a. psychodynamic
    b. cultural
    c. conscious
    d. biodynamic
  18. Which school of psychology believes that it is impossible to objectively study the mind?
    a. functionalism
    b. behaviorism
    c. humanism
    d. socialism
  19. Receiving an electric shock would be an example of a ______ whereas being frightened would be an example of a ______.
    a. stimulus, response
    b. punishment, reward
    c. reaction, emotion
    d. reinforcement, stimulus
  20. Dr Pula wants to explore differences in child-rearing practices between British and Chinese parents. She is most likely a:
    a. cognitive psychologist
    b. physiological psychologist
    c. cognitive-ergonomic psychologist
    d. social-cultural psychologist
  21. Nature is to ________ as nurture is to ________.
    a. environment/genes
    b. conscious/unconscious
    c. genes/environment
    d. unconscious/conscious
  22. Freud emphasized the role of ________ in shaping people’s personality.
    a. free will
    b. unconscious desires
    c. hormones
    d. group influence
  23. Evolutionary psychology has its roots in:
    a. behaviourism
    b. collectivism
    c. functionalism
    d. structuralism
  24. Most human behaviour:
    a. can be easily explained
    b. has multiple causes
    c. stems from unconscious desires
    d. depends on social influence
  25. A forensic psychologist would be most likely to study:
    a. the accuracy of eyewitness memory
    b. the impact of advertising on shopping behaviour
    c. the effect of hormones on decision making
    d. gender differences in learning styles
  26. The behaviourists rejected introspection because:
    a. it was too slow
    b. it invaded people’s privacy
    c. it yielded too much data
    d. it was too subjective
  27. Another term for reinforcement is:
    a. stimulus
    b. reward
    c. response
    d. condition
  28. East Asian cultures tend to be more oriented toward ________ while Western cultures
    tend to be more oriented toward ________.
    a. individualism/collectivism
    b. collectivism/individualism
    c. cultural norms/social norms
    d. social norms/cultural norms
  29. Watson and Skinner both contributed to which school of psychology?
    a. functionalism
    b. cognitive
    c. social-cultural
    d. behaviourism
  30. Which field of psychology would be most likely to study the influence of
    over-crowding on conformity?
    a. personality
    b. cognitive
    c. clinical
    d. social


  1. c
  2. d
  3. a
  4. c
  5. a
  6. c
  7. d
  8. d
  9. b
  10. d
  11. a
  12. b
  13. d
  14. a
  15. c
  16. b
  17. a
  18. b
  19. a
  20. d
  21. c
  22. b
  23. c
  24. b
  25. a
  26. d
  27. b
  28. b
  29. d
  30. d


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