Chapter 6: States of Consciousness

Multiple Choice Questions


  1.  A dualist believes:
    a. people have two personalities
    b. life is better with a partner
    c. there are two explanations for every behaviour
    d. the mind is separate from the brain
  2. Prolonged sleep deprivation can result in:
    a. impaired driving
    b. increased anxiety
    c. memory problems
    d. all of the above
  3. Which of the following is NOT one of the 4 primary classes of psychoactive drugs?
    a. stimulant
    b. barbiturate
    c. depressant
    d. hallucinogen
  4. How long does a circadian rhythm last?
    a. about an hour
    b. about a day
    c. about a month
    d. about a year
  5. Which of the following is a depressant?
    a. alcohol
    b. nicotine
    c. LSD
    d. caffeine
  6. From birth to adulthood, the amount of sleep we need per night:
    a. increases
    b. decreases
    c. stays the same
    d. decreases then increases
  7. ________ waves are to wakefulness as ________ waves are to deep sleep.
    a. alpha, beta
    b. beta, delta
    c. alpha, delta
    d. beta, theta
  8. What is another name for N3 stage sleep?
    a. rapid eye movement sleep
    b. beta wave sleep
    c. dream sleep
    d. slow wave sleep
  9. Caffeine is to ________ as alcohol is to ________.
    a. stimulant, depressant
    b. stimulant, hallucinogen
    c. stimulant, opioid
    d. barbiturate, stimulant
  10. What did Freud regard as the primary function of dreams?
    a. enhanced cognition
    b. wish fulfilment
    c. memory suppression
    d. enhanced self-esteem
  11. The body’s primary circadian pacemaker is the:
    a. pineal gland
    b. hippocampus
    c. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    d. amygdala
  12. According to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, dreams are triggered by the random firing of neurons in the:
    a. right temporal lobe
    b. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    c. brain stem
    d. hypothalamus
  13. What is another name for hallucinogens?
    a. poppies
    b. psychedelics
    c. epinephrine
    d. stimulants
  14. The term “hypnosis” is based on the Greek word for:
    a. trance
    b. drug
    c. sleep
    d. dream
  15. Which is the odd one out?
    a. opium
    b. halcion
    c. heroin
    d. morphine
  16. What did Freud call the hidden psychological content of a dream?
    a. its manifest content
    b. its literal content
    c. its latent content
    d. its soporific content
  17. Which hormone helps us fall asleep?
    a. nor-adrenalin
    b. estrogen
    c. oxytocin
    d. melatonin
  18. Which is the odd one out?
    a. nicotine
    b. alcohol
    c. barbiturates
    d. benzodiazepines
  19. The appearance of sleep spindles on a sleeper’s EEG recording would indicate they are in:
    a. REM sleep
    b. N1 stage sleep
    c. N2 stage sleep
    d. N3 stage sleep
  20. Which of the following is NOT a sleep disorder?
    a. narcolepsy
    b. somnambulism
    c. sleep apnea
    d. epilepsy
  21. Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
    a. decreased limbic system activity
    b. increased heart rate
    c. genital arousal
    d. dreaming
  22. If you were looking at an EEG recording of a sleeping person and noticed theta waves, which stage of sleep would that indicate?
    a. REM
    b. N1
    c. N2
    d. N3
  23. I am watching my friend sleep. If I want them to be able to tell me about their dreams I should wake them during:
    a. REM
    b. N1
    c. N2
    d. N3
  24. ________ increase activity in the CNS while ________ reduce it.
    a. barbiturates, toxic inhalants
    b. barbiturates, stimulants
    c. stimulants, depressants
    d. depressants, stimulants
  25. ________ behaviour is to unconscious as ________ behaviour is to conscious.
    a. normal, abnormal
    b. idiopathic, nomothetic
    c. automatic, controlled
    d. moral, immoral
  26. When it comes to a drug’s “safety ratio” the bigger the ratio the, ________ drug.
    a. more dangerous
    b. less dangerous
    c. more expensive
    d. less expensive
  27. Taking a stimulant will probably cause:
    a. an increase in blood sugar
    b. constricted pupils
    c. increased GABA production
    d. all of the above
  28. Hallucinogens typically mimic which neurotransmitter?
    a. GABA and acetylcholine
    b. endorphins and dopamine
    c. serotonin and epinephrine
    d. dopamine and norepinephrine
  29. ________ is defined as persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep.
    a. apnea
    b. narcolepsy
    c. bruxism
    d. insomnia
  30. Which is the odd one out?
    a. heroin
    b. LSD
    c. PCP
    d. mescaline


  1. d
  2. d
  3. b
  4. b
  5. a
  6. b
  7. c
  8. d
  9. a
  10. b
  11. c
  12. c
  13. b
  14. c
  15. b
  16. c
  17. d
  18. a
  19. c
  20. d
  21. a
  22. b
  23. a
  24. c
  25. c
  26. b
  27. a
  28. c
  29. d
  30. a


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