Chapter 8: Learning

Multiple Choice


  1. Pavlov is famous for his work in:
    a. contingent conditioning
    b. operant conditioning
    c. classical conditioning
    d. oppositional conditioning
  2. The study of learning is most closely associated with which school of psychology?
    a. psychoanalytic
    b. humanist
    c. social
    d. behaviourist
  3. If we reinforce the desired response every time it occurs we are using:
    a. continuous reinforcement
    b. incremental reinforcement
    c. intermittent reinforcement
    d. contingent reinforcement
  4. Observational learning is also known as:
    a. classical conditioning
    b. operant conditioning
    c. modelling
    d. manipulation
  5. Taking away a child’s toys after she has hit her brother (to stop her hitting him again!)
    is an example of:
    a. positive punishment
    b. negative punishment
    c. vindictive conditioning
    d. observational learning
  6. According to the behaviourist school, ________ plays no role in learning.
    a. experience
    b. nurture
    c. nature
    d. punishment
  7.  Thorndike developed the:
    a. law of effort
    b. law of energy
    c. law of effusion
    d. law of effect
  8. Giving a student extra homework after they misbehave in class is an example of:
    a. positive punishment
    b. negative punishment
    c. positive reinforcement
    d. negative reinforcement
  9. ________ schedules of reinforcement are based on number of responses while ________ schedules of reinforcement are based on elapsed time.
    a. fixed, variable
    b. variable, fixed
    c. interval, ratio
    d. ratio, interval
  10. To train her puppy to roll over, Kim began by rewarding it for simply lying down. Later, she only rewarded the puppy if it lay down AND turned to one side. Later still, the puppy only got a reward if it lay down, turned, then rolled over. Kim was using:
    a. classical conditioning
    b. modelling
    c. a fixed interval schedule
    d. shaping
  11. In classical conditioning, US stands for:
    a. unintentional stimulus
    b. unconditioned stimulus
    c. unconnected stimulus
    d. none of the above
  12. In classical conditioning, UR and CR are:
    a. opposite behaviours
    b. the same behaviour
    c. the result of extinction
    d. the same stimulus
  13. Which of the following phrases best sums up the law of effect:
    a. think before you act
    b. if you can’t beat them, join them
    c. if it works, repeat it
    d. measure twice, cut once
  14. Positive reinforcement ________ the likelihood of a behaviour, and negative reinforcement
    ________ the likelihood of a behaviour.
    a. increases, increases
    b. decreases, decreases
    c. increases, decreases
    d. decreases, increases
  15. Gerhardt got sick after eating a peach. Now he feels sick when he looks at peaches,
    nectarines or plums. This illustrates:
    a. spontaneous recovery
    b. intermittent reinforcement
    c. modelling
    d. generalization
  16. A bakery gives customers a free pastry after every 6 pastry purchases. This is an
    example of what kind of reinforcement schedule?
    a. fixed interval
    b. fixed ratio
    c. variable interval
    d. variable ratio
  17. A researcher trains a dog to salivate to the sound of a bell. Then he turns the lights on
    just before he sounds the bell. If he continues to do this until the dog starts to salivate as
    soon as the lights go on, he has demonstrated:
    a. latent learning
    b. insight
    c. second-order conditioning
    d. extinction
  18. An intermittent schedule of reinforcement that reinforces behaviour after an average,
    but unpredictable, amount of time has passed is called a ________ ________ schedule.
    a. fixed ratio
    b. variable ratio
    c. fixed interval
    d. variable interval
  19. Food is to ________ reinforcer as money is to ________ reinforcer.
    a. positive, negative
    b. negative, positive
    c. primary, secondary
    d. secondary, primary
  20. Positive punishment ________ behaviour, and negative punishment ________
    a. strengthens, strengthens
    b. weakens, weakens
    c. strengthens, weakens
    d. weakens, strengthens
  21. In the prisoner’s dilemma game:
    a. a positive outcome for one player does not necessarily mean a negative outcome
    for the other player
    b. a positive outcome for one player necessarily means a negative outcome
    for the other player
    c. the players can discuss their strategy with each other before making their choices
    d. each player has access to a lawyer
  22. In the prisoner’s dilemma game, the cooperative decision is:
    a. confess
    b. don’t confess
    c. blame the other person
    d. none of the above
  23. To encourage children to enjoy arithmetic, you should:
    a. punish them when they make a mistake
    b. reward them every time they get an answer right
    c. sometimes surprise them with a reward when they get an answer right
    d. ignore them
  24. To be classed as a phobia, a fear must be both:
    a. rational and life-threatening
    b. unexplained and unconscious
    c. short-lived and dangerous
    d. strong and irrational
  25. After being bitten by a big Alsatian dog, Hugo was scared of other big dogs but he was
    not scared of little dogs like Chihuahuas. This pattern demonstrates:
    a. shaping
    b. negative punishment
    c. discrimination
    d. latent learning
  26. You are online one evening when an advert appears showing your favourite movie star
    wearing a new brand of sunglasses. The advertiser hopes that your positive feelings
    toward the movie star will make you want the sunglasses. In this situation, the
    sunglasses would be the:
    a. US
    b. UR
    c. CS
    d. CR
  27. People who have a lot of dental problems often come to dislike even the smell of their
    dentist’s office. The smell represents a(n):
    a. US
    b. UR
    c. CS
    d. CR
  28. Taking away a person’s car after they have been caught speeding would be
    an example of:
    a. positive punishment
    b. negative punishment
    c. positive reinforcement
    d. negative reinforcement
  29. Research indicates that exposure to violent TV/video games:
    a. has no impact of aggression
    b. increases aggression
    c. reduces aggression
    d. promotes random acts of kindness
  30. Animals are most likely to learn associations that promote:
    a. survival
    b. happiness
    c. extinction
    d. discrimination


  1.  c
  2. d
  3. a
  4. c
  5. b
  6. c
  7. d
  8. a
  9. d
  10. d
  11. b
  12. b
  13. c
  14. a
  15. d
  16. b
  17. c
  18. d
  19. c
  20. b
  21. a
  22. b
  23. c
  24. d
  25. c
  26. c
  27. c
  28. b
  29. b
  30. a