Heart Failure

Heart Failure Chapter Overview

Jennifer Kong

Chapter Learning Objectives

By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Define and differentiate left- versus right-sided heart failure.
  • Identify structural and histological changes in the lungs and right- versus left-side of the heart, dependent on the type of heart failure.
  • Explain why pulmonary edema is associated with left-sided heart failure.
  • Briefly describe how interprofessional collaboration of health care professions work towards diagnosis of heart failure.

Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when your heart muscle can’t pump well anymore.  As a result, your heart is too weak or damaged to fill and pump efficiently. Heart failure can be subclassified with each classification having different causes and exhibit their own set of  signs, symptoms, and diagnostic findings.

This chapter is subdivided into:

  • Pre-test
  • Normal heart anatomy, physiology & histology
  • Types & causes of heart failure
  • Pathophysiology of heart failure
    • Left sided heart failure with pulmonary complications
    • Right sided heart failure with liver complications
  • Interview with health care professionals diagnosing/treating those with heart failure and its complications
    • Cardiac sonographer (Echocardiogram)
    • Medical Radiographer (Xray)
    • Medical Laboratory Science technologist (Microbiologist)
  • Case study of a patient experiencing heart failure and their patient journey and interactions with health care professionals
  • Post-test


The following abbreviations are used throughout the chapter.

ANS Autonomic Nervous System
CCT Certified Cardiographic Technician
CHF Congestive Heart Failure
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CRAT Certified Rhythm Analysis Technician
FACC Fellow of the American College of Cardiology
HDL High-Density Lipoprotein
IVC Inferior Vena Cava(e)
LAD Left Anterior Descending Artery
LDL Low-Density Lipoprotein
MI Myocardial Infarction
RCCS Registered Congenital Cardiac Sonographer
RCES Registered Cardiac Electrophysiology Specialist
RCIS Registered Cardiovascular Invasive Specialist
RCS Registered Cardiac Sonographer
RPhS Registered Phlebology Sonographer
RVS Registered Vascular Specialist
STEMI ST-Elevated MI





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Pathology Copyright © 2022 by Jennifer Kong is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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