At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
- Describe the pathophysiology of emphysema as a consequence of chronic injury and inflammation.
- Identify key histological features associated with emphysema.
- Outline expected clinical changes in a patient in response to remodelling, loss of alveolar tissue & lung elasticity.
This chapter is about emphysema, a condition that is under the umbrella term of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (). Emphysema is chronic condition of continuous lung injury and inflammation which will progressively worsen with no known cure. Thus, it takes many health care providers working collaboratively to manage an emphysema patient during the exacerbations and progression of their disease.
This chapter is subdivided into:
- Normal lung anatomy and histology
- Normal physiology of breathing
- Inflammation and Tissue remodeling
- Pathophysiology and histopathology of emphysema
- Interview with health care professionals diagnosing/treating those with emphysema and its complications
- Medical Radiographer (Computerized tomography)
- Case study of a patient experiencing exacerbation with COPD and her patient journey and interactions with health care professionals
The following abbreviations are used throughout the chapter.
|COPD||Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease|
|CPAP||Continuous Positive Airway Pressure|
|DRG||Dorsal Respiratory Group|
|ERV||Expiratory Reserve Volume|
|FRC||Functional Residual Capacity|
|HRVC||Human Rhinovirus C|
|IRV||Inspiratory Reserve Volume|
|PRG||Pontine Respiratory Group|
|PRRs||Pattern Recognition Receptor|
|TLC||Total Lung Capacity|
|TNF||Tumour Necrosis Factor|
|VRG||Ventral Respiratory Group|
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is an umbrella term for chronic pulmonary diseases that progressively narrows & obstructs the airways - especially during exhalation. This makes it progressively harder to breathe. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common examples of COPD