is a disease in which frequent, and chronic injury to the lungs causes inflammation and remodelling. Thus, to understand emphysema, the next chapter explains what inflammation is and how it leads to remodeling of tissue.
Inflammation is a normal response any kind of damage/infection/death of cells or tissues. Inflammation first has to limit loss of blood and block entry of pathogens into the wound (i.e. – hemostasis, clotting mechanism), clean up damaged tissue and destroy pathogens within the wound (i.e. neutrophils, extravasation, diapedesis, chemokine trail etc.), prepare wound site for new, but temporary, connective tissue (i.e. fibroblasts), and then replace temporary tissue with original tissue (if possible).
- The hallmark signs of inflammation is red (if visible), heat, swelling, and pain. These signs indicate the increased blood flow to the wound as part of the acute inflammatory process recruiting more leukocytes using chemical mediators. Leukocytes will track the pathogen and eliminate them, thus sterilizing the injury or infection, making the site ready for wound healing.
- Chemical mediators may also stimulate an inflammatory response distant from the site of injury, a systemic inflammatory response. Fever is an example of a systemic inflammatory response. Fever is intended to increase body temperature such that it kills the pathogens introduced with the wound.
- Assuming the healing process is not interrupted, the injury site will undergo an acute inflammatory process which completes within a week.
- An inflammatory process becomes chronic when the damage to tissue is frequent and/or the tissue does not have a chance to heal properly before being injured again.
a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Continual injury to lung tissue causes chronic inflammation and remodeling resulting in a loss of lung elasticity that is key to passive exhalation. This causes an 'obstruction' during exhalation.