Chapter 5. Oxygen Therapy
Oxygen is essential for sustaining life. The cardiovascular and the respiratory systems are responsible for supplying the body’s oxygen demands. Blood is oxygenated through the mechanisms of ventilation, perfusion, and the transport of respiratory gases (Potter, Perry, Ross-Kerr, & Wood, 2010).
Respiration is optimal when sufficient oxygenation occurs at the cellular level and when cellular waste and carbon dioxide are adequately removed via the bloodstream and lungs. If this system is interrupted — for example by lung tissue damage, inflammation or excess mucus in the airways, or impairment of ventilation — intervention is required to support the client and prevent the condition from worsening or, potentially, to prevent death from occurring (Perry, Potter, & Ostendorf, 2018).
Oxygen is the most frequently used medication in emergency medicine, and when used appropriately in the treatment of hypoxemia (an inadequate supply of oxygen in the arterial blood), it potentially saves lives (Kane, Decalmer, & O’Driscoll, 2013). This chapter describes the principles of oxygen therapy, the causes and management of hypoxia (the reduction of oxygen supply at the tissue level), and the optimal use of oxygen therapy and treatment modalities.
- Describe four functional components of the respiratory system.
- Identify health conditions that pose a risk to adequate oxygenation.
- Describe the functions and limitations of pulse oximetry.
- Differentiate hypoxemia and hypoxia.
- List hazards, precautions, and complications of oxygen therapy.
- Recognize signs and symptoms of hypoxia and safely administer oxygen within one’s professional scope of practice.
- Identify benefits and risks associated with oral and oropharyngeal suctioning.
- Recognize signs and symptoms that suggest need for suctioning.
- Demonstrate competence in relation to:
- Oral suctioning
- Oropharyngeal suctioning