Chapter 8. Intravenous Therapy
The use of intravenous (IV) therapy is common in the healthcare setting. IV therapy is a treatment that infuses fluids, nutrients, blood, blood products, or medication directly into a vein. It is a fast, efficient way to infuse fluids and medications into the body.
This chapter will review how to care for a patient with peripheral intravenous therapy and central venous catheters. It will cover how to prepare IV infusions, and how to assess, maintain, and prevent complications related to intravenous therapy.
- Define three patient conditions that may require IV therapy.
- Identify five systemic complications associated with IV therapy , signs and symptoms, and preventative measures.
- Identify five local complications associated with IV therapy, signs and symptoms, and preventative measures.
- Identify five potential complications associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) specifically, signs and symptoms and appropriate interventions.
- Differentiate common types of venous access devices: peripheral venous access device–short cannula; PVAD midline; CVADs–including peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC); percutaneuous non hemodialysis line; tunneled catheters; and implanted venous access device (IVAD).
- Identify rationale for selection of specific venous access devices and the benefits and complications associated with them.
- Differentiate isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic IV solutions.
- Describe the components of an IV administration set.
- Demonstrate flushing and locking protocols for PVAD-short, PICC, percutaneous non hemodialysis central line, and midline catheter.
- Initiating a continuous IV infusion from a locked IV, and discontinuing a continuous infusion
- Removing a PVAD-short cannula
- Priming of IV tubing
- Changing IV bags
- Changing IV tubing
- Calculating IV rates
- Describe the primary difference when removing a PVAD-short versus removing a percutaneous non hemodialysis CVC.
- Describe principles of IV site dressings.
- Identify three indications for blood and blood product transfusions.
- Identify five key steps in the pre-transfusion preparation intended to increase safety associated with transfusions.
- Identify signs and symptoms of transfusion reaction and initial nursing management.
- Identify four indications for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy.
- Describe three PN specific complications and one preventative measure for each.
- Describe four key elements in the plan of care (including rationale) for someone with PN therapy.